Site logo

The Cult of Saints in Late Antiquity

from its origins to circa AD 700, across the entire Christian world

Four Greek monograms carved on a column, which may be understood as an invocation of *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033) as the God-Bearer. Found near Chalkedon/Chalcedon (Bithynia, north-west Asia Minor). Probably 6th c. or later.

Evidence ID


Type of Evidence

Inscriptions - Inscribed architectural elements

Inscriptions - Formal inscriptions (stone, mosaic, etc.)

Hypothetical interpretation of four monograms carved on a column:

(Θεοτόκε, βοήθει τῷ δούλῳ σου
Ἰωσὴφ τῷ ἀθλίῳ)

'(God-Bearer, help your servant Ioseph, the miserable)!'

I. Kalchedon, no. 107.

Non Liturgical Activity

Bequests, donations, gifts and offerings

Protagonists in Cult and Narratives

Other lay individuals/ people


Four monograms inscribed on a column, found by Ioannes Miliopoulos before 1907 in the ruins to the east of Pendik (ancient Panteichion, area of Chalkedon / Chalcedon). Miliopoulos did not attempt to decipher them himself. A hypothetical interpretation was suggested to him by Henri Grégoire.


The interpretation of the meaning of these monograms, suggested by Henri Grégoire is hypothetical, though not unjustified.

Dating: This kind of invocation with the 'servant-of-saint' formula is usually dated to the 6th/8th c. or later, and is indeed common in the middle Byzantine period.


Die Inschriften von Kalchedon, no. 107.

Miliopoulos, I., "Βυζαντιακαὶ τοποθεσίαι",
Byzantinische Zeitschrift 16 (1907), 557.

Further reading:
Miliopoulos, I., "Βυζαντιναὶ τοποθεσίαι", Byzantinische Zeitschrift 29 (1929-1930), 245.

Record Created By

Pawel Nowakowski

Date Last Modified


Related Saint Records
IDNameName in SourceIdentity
S00033Mary, Mother of ChristΘεοτόκοςCertain

Please quote this record referring to its author, database name, number, and, if possible, stable URL:
Pawel Nowakowski, Cult of Saints, E00958 -