Adomnán, in his On the Holy Places, reports the recent visit of the Franco-Gallic bishop Arculf to Jerusalem, where he saw a cloth said to be woven by *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), depicting Christ and the twelve *Apostles (S02422). Written in Latin at Iona (north-west Britain), possibly 683/689.
Literary - Pilgrim accounts and itineraries
Adomnán, On the Holy Places - Book One
X. DE ALIO SACRO LINTEO QUOD SICUT FERTUR SANCTA MARIA UIRGO MATER DOMINI CONTEXERAT
1. Aliud quoque linteamen maius Arculfus in eadem Hierusolimitana ciuitate uidit, quod, ut fertur, sancta contexit Maria, et ob id magna reuerentia in eclesia habetum totus ueneratur populus. 2. In quo uidelicet linteo duodecim apostolorum formulae habentur intextae et ipsius Domini imago figurata. Cuius lineamenta una pars rubei coloris et altera e regione in altero latere uiridis habetur in modum uiridium herbarum.
'(10) CONCERNING ANOTHER MANTLE WHICH IT IS SAID THE HOLY VIRGIN MARY MOTHER OF THE LORD HAD WOVEN
In the same city of Jerusalem Arculf saw another larger cloth too, which it is said the holy Mary wove, and which for that reason is kept with great reverence in the church, venerated by all the people. Now in this cloth likenesses of the twelve apostles are interwoven, and the image of the Lord himself is depicted. One side of this cloth is red in colour, and the other part, on the opposite side, is green like green plants.'
Text and translation: Meehan 1958, 56-7.
Cult building - independent (church)Use of Images
Public display of an imageNon Liturgical Activity
Contact relic - clothProtagonists in Cult and Narratives
Contact relic - other
Ecclesiastics - bishops
SourceOn the Holy Places records across three books the travels of Arculf, an otherwise unknown Gallic bishop (sanctus episcopus gente Gallus), through diverse sacred sites in Jerusalem (Book one); Palestine, Syria, and Egypt (Book two); and Constantinople and Sicily (Book three). In the preface, Abbot Adomnán of Iona (ob. 704) explains that ‘in response to my careful enquiries he dictated to me … this faithful and accurate record of all his experiences … first I wrote it down on tablets (tabulis): it will now be written succinctly on parchment (in membranis breui)’. Bede, writing in 731, would lreport that Adomnán gave a copy of the volume to King Aldfrith of Northumbria (northern Britain) on a visit to his kingdom (Ecclesiastical History, 5.15). We know from Adomnán himself and other Irish sources that at least two such visits took place, in 687 and 689, thus establishing the latter date as the probable terminus ante quem for the work. Its terminus post quem is more difficult to determine. Meehan supposed that the Third Council of Constantinople (680-81) might have occasioned Arculf’s visit to the imperial capital. This is attractive, although ultimately conjectural. Yet if it were the case, we might – helped by Adomnán’s claim that the bishop spent nine months at Jerusalem – date Arculf’s adventures to around 679-82, and thereby the composition of On the Holy Places to no earlier than about 683. The work appears to have been popular. It survives in 22 manuscripts, the earliest of which are 9th century continental productions. Bede spoke of its ‘many readers’ (legentibus multis), and produced his own abridged version of the text in around 703.
On the Holy Places is more, however, than a straightforward itinerary. Adomnán embellishes and adapts Arculf’s account throughout with his own authorities on the Holy Land: chiefly the works of Jerome, but also texts such as Sulpicius Severus’ Chronicle, Hegesippus’ Histories, Iuvencus’ History of the Gospels, Eucherius of Lyon’s On the Layout of Jerusalem, as well as the Bible. Recent scholarship has also identified the degree to which the narrative of On the Holy Places is highly controlled and exegetical; this has asserted the text’s sophisticated theological qualities and, significantly, the authorial primacy of Adomnán, raising him above his status in older studies as merely Arculf’s amanuensis or ‘stenographer’ (O’Loughlin 2007). This has led in turn to the radical proposition that Arculf may perhaps have never existed, and been only a literary device of Adomnán. It appears strange, O’Loughlin has suggested, that Arculf’s journey appears to have accorded so well with Adomnán’s literary and theological interests; besides, the bishop is unheard of elsewhere, and the probability of him coming to Ireland or north-west Britain via a shipwreck (as Bede claimed), after a journey around the eastern Mediterranean, seems doubtful.
This may go too far. Further work has now reasserted the degree to which – in addition to, and in dialogue with, its literary models – Adomnán’s text does contain important evidence for the later 7th century Near East, which must have almost certainly come from a recent, eyewitness account (Hoyland and Waidler, 2014). The arguments against Arculf’s existence are in any case not compelling. Franco-Gallic episcopal lists survive patchily enough from the 7th century to account for his disappearance from his homeland’s records, while the suggestion he came directly to Britain through a shipwreck, after being swept away by storms, is made only by Bede, writing some years later: Adomnán and Arculf’s encounter could well have involved less drama than the Northumbrian monk imagined. Other sources show that connections between Gaul and the 7th century Irish church were relatively strong. It should not seem too surprising that the abbot of Iona might have found the opportunity to interview a figure such as Arculf at some point, shipwreck or not.
Adomnán’s account focuses almost entirely on biblical sites – many of his titular Holy Places are those directly associated with the life of Christ, and therefore not included in our database. Beyond these, the cult activity he reports almost exclusively revolves around Old and New Testament figures, most prominently Mary: of the post-biblical saints, only Jerome (E06084) and George (E06094) receive mention. Although Adomnán reports that Arculf visited a cult site of the latter in Palestine, he saves this story for his third book, set predominantly in Constantinople. This is noticeably distinct in tone from those that precede it, and the only part of the work to feature miracles, two of which explicitly involve the veneration of images and the gross ill-doing of those who offend them (E06094, E06117). If Brubaker and Haldon (2011) are correct in arguing that neither the Byzantine cult of images, nor the controversy over them, predated the period c. 680, then these closing passages of On the Holy Places would seem to confirm that Bishop Arculf’s journey was indeed a real one, and cannot have long preceded Adomnán’s adaptation and propagation of his account.
DiscussionArguably this image – as both a contact relic of Mary, and a likeness of Christ and the Apostles from life – could be considered an archeiropoieton (a miraculous, not-strictly 'man-made', depiction of the holy): see the comments of Kitzinger 1954, 115, n. 130.
Meehan, D.M., Adamnan’s De locis sanctis (Scriptores Latini Hiberniae 3; Dublin, 1958), with English translation.
Bieler, L., Adamnanus, De locis sanctis libri tres, in: Itineraria et alia geographica (Corpus Christianorum Series Latina, 175; Turnhout, 1965), 175-243 (see also 249-80 for Bede’s version).
Brubaker, L., and Haldon, J., Byzantium in the Iconoclast Era, c. 680-850: A History (Cambridge, 2011), 50-68, 781-2.
Hoyland, R.G., and Waidler, S., "Adomnán’s De Locis Sanctis and the Seventh-Century Near East," English Historical Review, 129 (2014), 787-807.
Kitzinger, E., "The Cult of Images Before Iconoclasm," Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 8 (1954), 83-150.
Ní Dhonnchadha, Máirín, "Adomnán [St Adomnán], (627/8?-704)," Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004), https://doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/110
O’Loughlin, T., Adomnán and the Holy Places: The Perceptions of an Insular Monk on the Locations of the Biblical Drama (New York, 2007).
|ID||Name||Name in Source||Identity||S00033||Mary, Mother of Christ||Maria||Certain||S02422||All Apostles||duodecim Apostoli||Certain|
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Benjamin Savill, Cult of Saints, E06076 - http://csla.history.ox.ac.uk/record.php?recid=E06076