The Greek Life of *Daniel the Stylite (ob. 493, S00342) recounts the life and manifold miracles of an ascetic who, imitating *Symeon the Stylite (the Elder, ob. 459, S00343), lives on a pillar and founds a monastic community at Anaplous on the Bosphorus. The text mentions shrines of martyrs and prophets in Constantinople, the use of holy oil and images, and the transfer of relics of Symeon the Stylite and the *Three Hebrew Youths (of the Old Testament Book of Daniel, S01198) to Constantinople. Written in Constantinople, 493/518.
Literary - Hagiographical - Lives
Life of Daniel the Stylite (BHG 489)
Origins and monastic life in Syria
(2.) Daniel is born in Meratha near Samosata (Roman Mesopotamia), after a prayer of his mother, Martha. (3.) At the age of five, his parents take him to a monastery and name him Daniel. (4.) At the age of twelve he joins a monastery near his village. (5.) He is soon tonsured. (6.) He follows his abbot to a council at Antioch. (7.) They visit the monastery of Telanissai and Symeon the Stylite (8.) who gives his blessing to Daniel. (9.) They return to the monastery, and Daniel is about to become abbot. Yet he leaves his monastery, visits Symeon again, and sets off for Jerusalem. (10.) A Samaritans revolt renders Palestine dangerous. Daniel encounters an old monk who advises him to go to Constantinople where he will find a new Jerusalem full of shrines of martyrs. (11.) They arrive at a monastery which Daniel enters, but the old monk does not.
(12. Digression) The sources of the author of this text are oral traditions from the saint’s disciples. While Daniel was still alive, a disciple of his had his image painted at a chapel in Constantinople and started writing his life. Yet Daniel ordered the destruction of both the painting and the manuscript.
(13.) At the monastery, Daniel is offered food, but the old monk seems to have disappeared. Daniel has a dream of him repeating his advice. He arrives at Byzantium and stays for one week at the shrine (εὐκτήριον) of *Michael the Archangel (S00181) at Anaplous.
Asceticism as a recluse
(14.) Daniel hears about a temple further away from Anaplous, at a site called Philemporin/Philemporos, which is haunted by demons who cause boats to sink and passers-by to be injured. (15.) He shuts himself up in the temple and cleanses it from the demons. (16.) His fame develops and people visit him. The pass becomes safe. (17.) The clergy of the church of Michael at Anaplous slander Daniel to the archbishop of Constantinople Anatolios (449-458), but the latter dismisses them. (18.) Another demonic attack is repelled. (19.) The priests complain again to Anatolios who summons Daniel to his palace and interrogates him. He appreciates his orthodoxy and allows him to continue his asceticism. (20.) Daniel’s prayers help Anatolios to recover from a severe illness. He returns to his hermitage and lives as a recluse.
Daniel becomes a stylite
(21.) Nine years later, Daniel has a vision of Symeon the Stylite inviting him to his position on the pillar. Daniel is taken up to the pillar by two angels, Symeon kisses him and departs for heaven. (22.) Some days later, a monk called Sergios comes to Constantinople carrying the leather tunic of Symeon the Stylite (S00343) who has just died (AD 459), as a blessing for the emperor Leo I (457-474).
(22) Μετ’ οὐ πολλὰς δὲ ἡμέρας παραγίνεταί τις μοναχὸς ἀπὸ τῆς ἀνατολῆς ὀνόματι Σέργιος, μαθητὴς τοῦ ἁγίου Συμεῶνος, ἀπαγγέλλων τὸ χρηστὸν τέλος τοῦ ἁγίου, ἔχων ἐν χερσὶ δερμοκούκουλλον τοῦ ἁγίου Συμεῶνος πρὸς τὸ δοῦναι αὐτὸ τῷ μακαρίῳ Λέοντι λόγῳ εὐλογίας.
'Not many days later, a certain monk from the East, called Sergios, disciple of Saint Symeon, arrived and announced the good end of the holy man, carrying in his hands the leather hood cloak of Saint Symeon, in order to give it to Leo, of blessed memory, as a blessing.'
The emperor is busy, and Sergios visits Daniel. The latter relates to him his vision and Sergios decides to stay with him as a disciple. (23-34.) Sergios has a vision which confirms Daniel’s decision to become a stylite. An imperial guardsman called Markos provides a pillar, which is set up near the estate of the imperial steward Gelanios. The latter initially opposes Daniel. Yet the holy man exorcises the possessed son of a lawyer called Sergios, and the daughters of the patrician Kyros (Cyrus of Panopolis). After another miracle, Gelanios recognises Daniel’s holiness, allows him to stay on his estate, and sets up a higher pillar for him. An ascetic community is created near the pillar. (34.) Daniel is visited by Licinia Eudoxia, empress of the West, after her ransom from Vandal Africa (AD 462). (36.) He cures the second daughter of Kyros, and the latter writes an epigram which he has inscribed onto the saint’s column. The epigram, which is quoted, is also known from the Greek Anthology (see E00566) (37.) Daniel heals the possessed son of a priest from Pontus. (38.) His prayers help the emperor Leo I to have a son. (39-40.) Some heretics pay a harlot to cause a scandal at Daniel’s ascetic community. She fails, and, possessed by a demon, reveals the plot in public. She is delivered from the demon by Daniel.
Reign of Leo I (457-474)
(41.) Daniel warns the emperor Leo I and archbishop Gennadios (458-471) that a great calamity is about to occur, but his warnings are forgotten. (42-43.) At Leo’s request, Gennadios visits him to ask for his blessing. Against Daniel’s will, Gennadios ordains him as priest by reciting the prayers of ordination from below the column. (44.) The emperor Leo visits Daniel and builds for him a new, double column to stand on. (45-46.) A great fire breaks out and destroys a great part of the city, killing many. People and the emperor seek Daniel’s prayers and blessing. (47-49.) A great storm causes the column to sway, threatening Daniel’s life. The emperor is enraged against the architect, and visits Daniel who asks that the man be pardoned. During a visit to the saint, the emperor falls off his horse. He interprets this as a sign that he should dismount in the holy man’s presence. (50.) Leo builds a palace by the church of Michael at Anaplous, and spends most of his time there, in order to be near the saint. (51.) The emperor is visited by Goubazios, king of the Lazi, and brings him to Daniel. (52.) A great snowstorm removes Daniel’s leather tunic and causes him to freeze. (53.) His disciples thaw him, on the verge of death. He describes a dream vision he had of the old man who had once encouraged him to come to Constantinople. He also saw a hawk flying from the east to the Forum of Leo and being transformed into an eagle. The disciples interpret this as meaning that the relics of Symeon the Stylite must be brought to Constantinople. (54.) The emperor proposes to build an iron shelter on the pillar for Daniel, but the latter replies that Symeon the Stylite, although older, had no protection of that kind. (55.) The future emperor Zeno arrives at Constantinople, revealing a plot of the Gothic general Ardaburius, son of Aspar, against the empire. Leo appoints Zeno as comes domesticorum and brings him to Daniel. (56.) Daniel predicts the failure of an attack on Alexandria, prepared by the Vandal king Genseric. (57-58.) Leo visits Daniel to thank him. He asks Daniel to allow him to build a monastery and hostel for pilgrims by the column. Daniel reluctantly gives his consent and requests that the relic (τὸ λείψανον) of Symeon the Stylite be brought from Antioch. The relic arrives from Antioch and is festally deposited at the church of the newly built monastery. (59.) A heretical priest with his family visits Daniel and starts to blame him. They are possessed by demons and healed after using holy oil. In thanksgiving, they dedicate a silver icon depicting them and Daniel, and bearing an inscription asking for Daniel's prayers and forgiveness. It is still kept at the sanctuary of the church.
59. Ὑπὲρ δὲ εὐχαριστίας ἀνέθηκεν εἰκόνα ἀργυρῆν λιτρῶν δέκα, ἐκτυπώσας ἐν αὐτῇ τὸν ἅγιον ἄνδρα καὶ ἑαυτοὺς ὑπογράψαντας τάδε· «Συγχώρησιν αἴτησαι ἡμῖν παρὰ Θεοῦ τῶν ἡμαρτημένων εἰς σέ, πάτερ.» Ὅπερ ἕως τοῦ νῦν ἀνατέθειται ἐν τῷ θυσιαστηρίῳ.
‘In thanksgiving, he dedicated a silver icon of ten pounds, on which he had the holy man and themselves depicted, with the following subscript: “Request our forgiveness by God for the sins we have committed against you, father.” That piece has been dedicated at the sanctuary down to the present.'
Two notable disciples: Titos and Anatolios
(60-64.) Titos, leader of a private garrison of soldiers from Gaul, comes to Constantinople and joins the imperial guards of Leo I, but quits the military in order to join Daniel’s monastery. He excels in extreme asceticism. When he dies, Daniel orders that he be buried ‘in the tomb of the elders’ (ἐν τῷ μνήματι τῶν πρεσβυτέρων). His follower, Anatolios, also becomes a notable ascetic and, with Daniel’s blessing, settles at the shrine of *Zacharias the Prophet at the nearby estate of the general Idoubingos (location unknown), where he establishes a small monastery.
Death of Leo I and rise of Zeno to power (AD 474)
(65-67.) Leo marries his daughter, Ariadne, to Zeno and requests Daniel’s blessing, before appointing him as general in Thrace. The holy man predicts that Zeno will not be harmed, and he indeed escapes a conspiracy against his life and settles at Chalcedon. Ariadne gives birth to Leo II, who is crowned co-emperor. Leo I dies, and the Senate appoints Zeno as co-emperor to Leo II who is still an infant and soon dies. Zeno becomes sole emperor (AD 474).
Reign of Basiliscus (475-476)
(68-71.) Daniel predicts Zeno’s temporary dethronement and eventual restoration, after many hardships. During Basiliscus’ reign (475-476), the new emperor clashes with Archbishop Akakios (472-489) who calls upon Daniel for help. During these troubled times, the empress Verina seeks sanctuary at the oratory of *Mary [mother of Christ, S00033] (72.) Beseeched by ambassadors from the Patriarch Akakios, amongst whom was the abbot of the monastery of *Kyrikos [child martyr of Tarsus, S00007], and encouraged by a voice from heaven, Daniel comes down from his pillar and joins Akakios at Saint Sophia in Constantinople. A great crowd gathers, and Basiliscus, fearing a riot, goes to Hebdomon. (74.) Daniel leads a procession of protest against Basiliscus. As they pass near the shrine of the Prophet *Samuel (S01429), Daniel heals a leper. (75.) At the palace, a Goth who laughs at Daniel falls out of a window and dies. The saint and people reproach the emperor, and are joined by many of the imperial guards. (76.) Basiliscus attempts to apologise and reconcile himself with Daniel, but the latter dismisses him. Daniel and the crowd return to the city. (77.) At the Golden Gate, he heals two possessed men. (78-79.) Next, he stops and prays at the monastery of *John the Baptist (S00020) of the Stoudios quarter, where he heals the ill daughter of a woman. (80-81.) Near the Forum of the Ox, Daniel stops to rest at the house of the patrician Dagalaiphos who helps him to reach Saint Sophia where he meets the archbishop, Akakios. While resting at the secretum of the cathedral, a snake appears and winds itself around Daniel’s feet, but he removes it and it immediately dies. (82.) The noble woman Herais visits him and asks to be granted to have a child. She takes a string that has touched Daniel’s inflamed foot. She has a son whom she names Zenon, as instructed by Daniel. (83-84.) Basiliscus returns to the city and meets Daniel and Akakios at Saint Sophia, where he reconciles himself with them. A confession of Orthodoxy is publicly proclaimed and Daniel returns to his pillar. Yet he confides in his associates that Basiliscus is not sincere. Soon Zeno and his wife return and are restored to power.
Miracles during Zeno’s reign (476-491)
(86.) Daniel heals the disabled son of a goldsmith. (87.) He also heals a man beaten by brigands near Ankyra. (88.) The centurion Hippasios performs cures, using letters of Daniel. (89.) Daniel heals a mute boy who becomes a priest at a shrine of *Michael the Archangel at Parthenopolis. (90.) Daniel performs many other miracles, which cannot be included in the narrative. During a period of ecclesiastical unrest, he urges many priests to abstain from schism. (91.) He predicts Zeno’s death and the marriage of Ariadne to a righteous man who will be an excellent emperor. The prophecy is fulfilled in the person of Anastasius I (491-518).
The death and burial of Daniel
(92.) Daniel falls ill and is expected to die. The imperial couple sends a splendid sarcophagus for his burial, which he rejects. He prefers to be buried deep in the earth under relics of martyrs, so that visitors to his tomb may be helped by them. Indeed relics of the *Three Hebrew Youths, Ananias, Azarias, and Misael (S01198), were buried over his tomb. These had been brought to Constantinople under Leo I, and deposited at Anaplous by Archbishop Euphemios (490-496). The emperors fund generously the decoration of the shrine of Anaplous for Daniel’s funeral. (93.) On the point of death, Daniel makes various prophecies and gives instructions about how his body is to be taken down from the pillar. (94.) The patrician Herais (mentioned in 82) insists on paying for all the expenses of Daniel’s funeral. She provides candles, oil, gold, and has a spiral scaffold built around the pillar, to help the removal of the body for its funeral. (95.) Seven days before his death, Daniel summons his disciples and gives them spiritual injunctions and his blessing. (96.) A crowd spontaneously gathers, and waits till Archbishop Euphemios climbs up the pillar and announces that Daniel is still alive. Daniel has a vision of all the saints, and celebrates his last Eucharist. (97.) A possessed man proclaims that joy prevails in heaven over Daniel’s imminent death, and that he himself is being tormented by the apostles, saints and martyrs in whose company Daniel is. He is healed at the moment of Daniel’s death on Saturday, 11 December 493. (98.) The railing is taken down and Daniel’s body is found with his knees drawn up to his chest, covered in the masses of his hair and beard (described in detail). The body is straightened, clad in a leather tunic, and fixed onto a plank. (99.) The archbishop and dignitaries go up to the pillar and venerate the body. The plank is set upright and the body is displayed ‘like an image/icon’ (τρόπον εἰκόνος) to the crowd for several hours. While the people pray in tears, three crosses appear in the sky and doves fly around Daniel's body. (100.) Archbishop Euphemios orders that the body be placed in a lead coffin, lest the people dismember it. He and other officials carry the coffin down the spiral scaffold which a rushing crowd causes to collapse, but no one is hurt. The body is brought to the oratory and buried underneath the relics of the martyrs as Daniel had requested.
(101-102.) Recapitulation, timeline of Daniel’s life, and epilogue.
Text: Delehaye 1923. Translation and Summary: Efthymios Rizos
Saint’s feastCult Places
Cult building - independent (church) Places Named after Saint
Cult building - monastic
Burial site of a saint - crypt/ crypt with relics
Burial site of a saint - sarcophagus/coffin
Other (mountain, wood, tree, pillar)
Martyr shrine (martyrion, bet sāhedwātā, etc.)
MonasteryUse of Images
Commissioning/producing an imageNon Liturgical Activity
Public display of an image
Bequests, donations, gifts and offerings
Visiting graves and shrines
Composing and translating saint-related texts
Oral transmission of saint-related stories
Visiting/veneration of living saint
Ceremonies at burial of a saint
Miracle during lifetimeRelics
Miracle at martyrdom and death
Fertility- and family-related miracles (infertility, marriages)
Apparition, vision, dream, revelation
Revelation of hidden knowledge (past, present and future)
Miraculous power through intermediary
Bodily relic - unspecifiedProtagonists in Cult and Narratives
Bodily relic - entire body
Bodily relic - nails, hair and bodily products
Contact relic - saint’s possession and clothes
Contact relic - oil
Contact relic - cloth
Making contact relics
Transfer, translation and deposition of relics
Transfer/presence of relics from distant countries
Construction of cult building to contain relics
WomenCult Related Objects
Ecclesiastics - bishops
Ecclesiastics - lesser clergy
Ecclesiastics - abbots
Ecclesiastics - monks/nuns/hermits
Foreigners (including Barbarians)
Relatives of the saint
Monarchs and their family
Merchants and artisans
Precious material objects
SourceThe Life of Daniel the Stylite was very probably written shortly after its hero’s death in 493, and probably before the end of Anastasius' reign (491-518). It is known from four manuscripts of the 11th and 12th centuries, and survives in two recensions. These are likely to have been produced by the original author and contain no substantive differences in the narrative.
The hagiographical dossier of Daniel includes also a metaphrastic (10th century) version (BHG 490) and a concise epitome (BHG 490e), both of which are based on our text.
DiscussionThe Life of Daniel is one of the most important biographies of monastic founders in late antique Constantinople. It provides the foundation narrative of a major monastic pilgrimage centre which developed in the vicinity of the ancient shrine of Michael the Archangel at Anaplous (today’s Arnavutköy-Bebek on the European coast of the Bosphorus) in the second half of the 5th century. Besides its value as a hagiographic text, it is a major historical source for the reigns of Leo I, Zeno, Basiliscus, and Anastasius I. The chronology and major events reflected in its narrative are essentially accurate. The text is characterised by a strong loyalty to the regimes and religious policy of Leo I, Zeno, and Anastasius I, which may allow us to exclude a date of composition after the accession of Justin I (518-527). The author reports that he has collected his information from the oral testimonies of monks who had lived alongside Daniel, suggesting that he is a monk at the same monastery. He also notes that a biography for Daniel started being written during his lifetime, but that its manuscript was destroyed at Daniel’s orders (§ 12).
After his arrival at Anaplous in c. 450, Daniel spent about nine years as a recluse, attracting the attention of Archbishop Anatolios and members of the court. Yet it appears that the development of his monastic community took off only after he adopted the extreme ascetic style of the pillar, right after the death of Symeon the Stylite in 459. The author implies that his hero was miraculously appointed as the direct spiritual successor of Symeon by the first stylite himself. Daniel, a Syriac-speaking villager from Mesopotamia, embodies the contribution of the Syriac speaking world to the spiritual life of Constantinople and its Church, bringing to the heart of the empire a type of asceticism and monastic community which had been indigenous and peculiar to the Syrian countryside. Daniel's fame attracted the attention of the imperial family and the court, and he was visited by Licinia Eudoxia and Leo I himself. The emperor was apparently so closely associated with the holy man that he built a palace at Anaplous and spent most of his time there (§ 50). Soon, the emperor funded the construction of a monastery around Daniel’s column, which also became a pilgrimage shrine with the translation and festal deposition of relics of Symeon the Stylite at its chapel (§§ 57-58). The monastic centre started to produce more holy men, like Titos and Anatolios (§§ 60-64).
After Leo I’s death, Daniel remained a loyal defender of his son-in-law Zeno. His descent from his pillar during Basiliscus’ reign marks a particularly dramatic moment of Constantinopolitan history. The cause for this distraction of Daniel from his ascetic struggle was Basiliscus’ religious policy in favour of Monophysitism, which precipitated a conflict between the new emperor and the archbishop of Constantinople, Akakios.
The doctrinal position of the text provides evidence for its date. Although it repeatedly condemns those who underplay the incarnation of Christ, it nowhere mentions the Council of Chalcedon. Daniel arrived at Anaplous in the 450s, namely around the time when the council was convoked (451). He was accused of heresy, until his orthodoxy was endorsed by Archbishop Anatolios, the president of the Council of Chalcedon. Yet the council itself is passed over in silence. This stance may be explained by the fact that the author of the Life, writing in the 490s or 500s, conformed with the religious policy of Zeno's controversial Henotikon, which was promulgated in 482 and remained valid under Anastasius I (419-518). The Henotikon condemned Nestorius and Eutyches, without endorsing the Council of Chalcedon and its Christology, which seems to agree with the spirit of our text. The dispute over the Henotikon is probably the ecclesiastical conflict mentioned in § 90. Nothing concrete is said about the events of that time, except that Daniel discouraged clerics from going into schism, which places the holy man on Zeno's side. Zeno’s policy caused a clash with Rome (the Acacian Schism) which ended after the accession of Justin I in 518, when Chalcedon became again the official doctrine of the imperial church. It seems unlikely that our text was produced after that point.
The text provides important testimonies for the attraction of ascetics to shrines of saints (which are called μαρτύρια or προφητεῖα, when dedicated to martyrs or prophets respectively) in the city and suburbs of Constantinople, many of which belonged to the estates of aristocrats. On his arrival at Constantinople, Daniel spends one week at the church of Michael at Anaplous (today's Arnavutköy on the European coast of the Bosphorus), but establishes his monastic retreat on a site further north. The site (called Philemporin/Philemporos in the longer recension of our text and in the metaphrastic Life) lay at some distance from Anaplous. A Byzantine Synaxarion refers to the shrine as ἐπέκεινα τοῦ Ἀνάπλου, 'beyond Anaplous'. The place is described in our text as a dangerous pass where ships sink and travellers were threatened by falling rocks. It is plausible to locate it midway between Anaplous and Sosthenion, at the narrowest and most dangerous part of the Bosphorus, where the Ottoman fortress of Rumeli Hisari stands. In Middle Byzantine times, Daniel’s column was still visible on a hill near Sosthenion: it is mentioned in the 10th century Life of Loukas the Stylite (Delehaye, Saints Stylites, 197-198; Janin 1969, 347).
Given the important relics it contained, it seems that the monastery became a centre of the veneration of Daniel himself, Symeon the Stylite, the Three Hebrew Youths, and possibly other saints. Indeed, the Synaxarion of Constantinople mentions a feast for Symeon, celebrated at Anaplous on 26 July, which must be the anniversary of the arrival of his relics. Daniel is said to have performed many of his miracles by giving to people the 'oil of the saints', possibly myrrh/holy oil blessed by the relics of the shrine.
Passages in the Life of special interest for the cult of the saints are the following:
§§ 12, 59, 99: references to the use of images of Daniel during his lifetime.
§§ 13 and 17: reference to the shrine of Michael the Archangel at Anaplous.
§ 22: the leather tunic of Symeon the Stylite is brought to the emperor Leo in Constantinople, soon after the saint's death (in AD 459).
§§ 57-58: the celebration of the deposition of the relics of Symeon the Stylite. The celebration is defined as a καταθέσια (feast of deposition) and the service as a παννυχίς (all-night vigil). The formulation of the text suggests that the whole relic was brought. The saint’s request from the emperor reads as follows: (§ 57) Ἵνα κελεύσῃς ἀποστεῖλαι ἐν Ἀντιοχείᾳ καὶ ἀγάγαι τὸ λείψανον τοῦ ἁγίου Συμεῶνος. Order that men be sent to Antioch and bring the relic of the holy Symeon. The text's claim that Leo I brought the relics of Symeon to Anaplous contradicts the assertion of the ecclesiastical historian Evagrius who, writing in 593/4, affirms that Antioch denied the emperor's request for the saint's relics (E04490).
§ 64: the foundation of a monastery at the shrine (προφητεῖον) of the Prophet *Zechariah (S00283) in Katabolos, a coastal site on the Bosphorus of uncertain location (Janin 1969, 133). It may have possessed relics of the prophet, brought from Palestine.
§ 69: the empress Verina seeks sanctuary at the shrine of *Mary at Blachernae, when her brother, the usurper Basiliscus, attempts to murder her. She stays there until the end of Basiliscus' reign (475-476). This may be an indirect attestation of the existence of the palace of Blachernae near the shrine.
§ 72: mention of a monastery of *Kyriakos (child martyr of Tarsus, S00007).
§ 74: mention of the shrine (προφητεῖον) of the Prophet *Samuel (S01429) at Ammos, probably near Hebdomon (Janin 1969, 449).
§ 78: Mention of the shrine (μαρτύριον, προφητεῖον) of *John the Baptist (S00020) at the monastery of Stoudios.
§ 82: The giving of a string as a contact relic to the noble woman Herais.
§ 88: Cures performed by the centurion Hippasios who used to place Daniel's handwritten letters onto the bodies of sick people.
§ 89: Foundation of a shrine and monastery of Michael the Archangel at Parthenopolis (location unknown).
§ 92: The deposition of relics of the *Three Hebrew Youths of the Old Testament Book of Daniel (Azarias, Ananias, and Misael) at the monastery of Daniel, by Archbishop Euphemios in 491/3 at the place which was prepared to become Daniel's tomb.
§ 97: The date of Daniel's death on 11 December.
§§ 18, 19, 29, 40, 59, 87, 89: References to cures by the 'oil of the saints' (ἔλαιον τῶν ἁγίων) provided by Daniel to people suffering from various afflictions.
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Dawes, E., and Baynes, N.H., Three Byzantine Saints: Contemporary Biographies of St Daniel the Stylite, St Theodore of Sykeon, and St John the Almsgiver (London and Oxford: Mowbrays, 1948), 1-84.
Festugière, A.-J., Les moines d'Orient, vol. 2, Les moines de la région de Constantinople (Paris, 1961), 87–171.
Lietzmann, H., “Der heilige Daniel auf der Säule,” in: Byzantinische Legenden (Jena, 1911), 1–52.
Simon Palmer, J. La vida sobre una columna: Vida de Simeón Estilita, Vida de Daniel Estilita (Madrid, 2014), 67–143.
Brown, P., "The Rise and Function of the Holy Man in Late Antiquity," Journal of Roman Studies 61 (1971), 80-101.
Déroche, V., and Lesieur, B., "Notes d’hagiographie byzantine. Daniel le Stylite – Marcel l’ Acémète – Hypatios de Rufinianes," Analecta Bollandiana 128 (2010), 283-295.
Duval, Y., Auprès des saints corps et âme. L’inhumation « ad sanctos » dans la chrétienté d’Orient et d’Occident du IIIe au VIIe siècle (Paris: Études Augustiniennes, 1988), 118-120.
Efthymiadis, S., and Déroche. V., "Greek Hagiography in Late Antiquity (Fourth-Seven Centuries)," in: S. Efthymiadis (ed.), The Ashgate Research Companion to Byzantine Hagiography. Vol. 1: Periods and Places (Farnham: Ashgate, 2011), 35-94, at p. 61.
Janin, R., "Les sanctuaires byzantins de Saint Michel," Échos d’Orient 33 (1934), 28-52.
Janin, R., La géographie ecclésiastique de l'empire Byzantin. I 3. Les églises et les monastères de la ville de Constantinople. 2nd ed. (Paris, 1969).
Lane Fox, R. "The Life of Daniel," in M. Edwards and S. Swain (eds.), Portraits: Biographical Representation in Greek and Latin Literature of the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1997), 175-225.
|ID||Name||Name in Source||Identity||S00007||Kyrikos/Cyricus and Ioulitta/Julitta, child and his mother, martyrs of Tarsus||Certain||S00020||John the Baptist||Ἰωάννης||Certain||S00033||Mary, Mother of Christ||Certain||S00181||Michael, the Archangel||Μιχαὴλ||Certain||S00283||Zechariah, Old Testament prophet||Ζαχαρίας||Certain||S00342||Daniel, stylite near Constantinople, ob. 493||Δανιὴλ||Certain||S00343||Symeon the Elder, stylite of Qal‘at Sim‘ān, ob. 459||Συμεώνης||Certain||S00597||Zechariah, father of John the Baptist||Certain||S01198||Three Hebrew Youths of the Old Testament Book of Daniel||Ἀνανίας, Ἀζαρίας, Μισαὴλ||Certain||S01429||Samuel, Old Testament prophet||Σαμουὴλ||Certain|
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