The will of Bertram/Bertrand, bishop of Le Mans (ob. 623), establishes as the bishop's heirs two churches at Le Mans (north-west Gaul), one dedicated to *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), the other to the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008); and makes provisions concerning numerous properties across Gaul, including churches associated with various saints, mostly in or around Le Mans. Written in Latin at Le Mans, 27 March 616.
Documentary texts - Donation document
Documentary texts - Will
Testament of Bertram
In nomine Domini nostri Ihesu Xpristi et Spiritus Sancti, sub die sexto kalendas aprilis anno XXXII regnante gloriosissimo domno Clothario rege, Bertrannus, etsi indignus peccator, episcopus sanctae aecclesia Cenomannicae, sanus, Deo propitio, mente et corpore sanoque consilio, metuens casus humanae fragilitatis, testamentum meum condedi, eumque filio meo Ebbone scribere rogavi et dictavi [...] Itaque quando ego suprascriptus Bertrannus peccator ex rebus humanis excessero, debitum vel naturae tempus complevero, tunc tu, sacrosancta aecclesia Cenomannica, una cum sancta ac venerabili basilica domni Petri et Pauli apostolorum, que in conspectu civitatis opere meo pro defensione civitatis vel salubritatem populi aedificavi, heredes michi estote, heresque meos vos esse constituo ac jubeo; caeteri ve exheredes sint toti [...]
 Idicirco te, sacrosancta aecclesia Caenomannica heres mea, habere volo ac jubeo: Villa[m] juris mei, cujus vocabulum est Bonalpha [...] Similiter agrum Culturam eo tempore adquisitum, te, domna heres mea aecclesia, habere volo ac decerno; exquo agro medietatem bonae memoriae domna Ingoberga quondam regina, mea instantia meoque exigente servitio, sanctae Mariae dereliquit [...] alia[m] vero medietatem de germano ipsius Magnulfo quondam data precio comparavi, ut in jure sanctae aecclesiae ager ille ad integram pervenerit [...]
 Basilicae vero sanctorum ac beatissimorum Petri et Pauli apostolorum, quem superius heredem una cum sancta aecclesia Cenomannica constituti, sicut mea est devotio, quia ibidem meum, quandoquidem Deus voluerit, desidero collocare corpusculum, ad ipsam sanctam basilicam in honore sanctorum apostolorum, ut pro facinore meo quod hic in saeculo jugiter visus sum perpetrasse, ut ipsi apostoli suffragiis suis ab infernali poena me liberare dignentur, et si non in gloria - quod non mereor - vel veniam eorum patrociniis aut intercessionibus merear obtinere, dono itaque ad ipsam sanctam basilicam villas sitas tam in territorio Cenomannico, quam in Stanpense vel Burdigaliase aut ubicumque, tam per donationis titulum, quam ad ipsam basilicam jam die natalicii sui dedi [...] Illud vero rogo atque iubeo abbatibus, qui per singula tempora sicut divina potentia aut gratia domnorum apostolorum eos inibi jusserit perdurare, ut omni tempore vitae eorum hoc sit eis potissimum observandum, ut de villis superius nominatas, quicquid exinde aut in tributum aut in suffragium annis singulis poterit obvenire, mediatas ex hoc, quando fuerit mea commemoratio, pauperibus aut in vestimentum aut in aurum erogetur; alia medietas luminis exinde in sancta basilica omni tempore sufficienter accendatur, ut nunquam sit neque una hora noctis absque luminaria ipsa sancta basilica, nisi, sicut dignum est, in honorem praedictorum apostolorum luminis omni tempore fulgeat indesinenter, tam ad basilicam sanctorum Apostolorum, quam et ad sanctam Crucem, quem postea aedificavi, vel ad basilicam domni Martini ad sinodochium, que est ad Pontileuga [...]
 Basilice domni et peculiaris patrini mei Germani episcopi, qui me dulcissime enutrivit, et sua sancta oratione, acsi indignum, ad sacerdotii honorem perduxit - si supersistit, ut in basilica domni Vincentii ubi ejus sanctum corpusculum requiescit: dono inibi in honore sepulturae suae villam Bobane [...] Jubeo ea conditione, ut si sanctum corpus ejus in basilica nova, quem inclytus Chilpericus quondam rex construxit, si convenerit, ut inibi transferatur, villam ipsam, ubi ejus sanctum corpus fuerit, semper ibidem deserviat; et ipse sanctus pontifex pro meis facinoribus deprecare dignetur. Rogo abba lustris loci ullius, ut nomen meum in libro vitae recitetur [...]
 [...] Perfeci scilicet domum, quae infra muros in dextra parte de posteriola meo opere aedificavi, ubi oratoribus in honore sancti Michaelis archangeli constructus est; volui ut ipsas domus et basilica sancti Petri et Pauli debuisset [...]
 [...] De Ponteleugua: Haec est de matricula et sinodotii in honorem sancti Martini - haec e[st] matricula sancti Petri et Pauli, quod est ad pontum leugua. Si per singula perpensamus quantum facinora nostra in s[ae]c[u]l[u]m, dum detenti fuimus, comissa esse noscuntur, non est tantum facultas redimendi, quantum sunt culpae commissae. Sed omnipotens Deus, qui nullum perire vult, ipsa parva manuscula quae grandis lacrimas vel memoris animae, Redemptori nostro offere videmur in pauperis, ipse nobis pro larga pietatis tuae gratia qualemcumque tribuat veniam. Ergo, quia votus et liberatio et deliberatio mea est, ut basilica quae in honore beatissimi ac peculiaris patrini nostri Martini sancti episcopi ad Ponteleugua, ubi et requies sua sancta, Deo propitio, posui, delego atque ipsum sanctum locum locella his nominibus [...]
 [...] Gregem illum, quem portinas equitiarias super rem sanctae basilicae domni Victurii episcopi intendere videtur, ad ipsa sancta basilica volo esse donatum [...]
 Similiter villam Pauliacum, quem ego - datos ld tregentos auro venerabile Bobeno abbate - de basilica domni Albini comparavi: ipsa dulcissimo pronepoti meo Leodochranno habere jubeo, ut ipsa in perpetuo possideat [...]
 Basilicae sancti ac beatissimi sancti Germani Parisiaci antistites, qui michi dulciter enutrivit et ad sacerdotali onus, ut non merui, a per sua intercessione perveni - ad ipsa basilica, in ipsius honorem obedum civitates Caenomannicae aedificavi et casas inibi aedficavi et moniculos institui, qui inibi Xpisto propitio, in perpetuis temporibus officium et servitium procurent - dono ad ipsa basilica in honore ipsius pontificis, villas his nominibus [...]
 Villa vero Vocriono, quam michi gloriosus Chlotharius rex suo munere pro rebus nostris, quas Egulfus et Arnoaldus malo ordine et tenuerunt et vastaverunt, licet plus jam nobis exinde pius rex dederat. Sed per injunctionem suam hoc aecclesiae Mistice in honorem domni Stephani relaxavi, et villam istam cum domno et fratri meo Arnulfo episcopo petivi, ut illas villas quae fuerunt Egulfo et Arnoaldo ipso receperit, nos villa Vocrionno in perpetuo tenere deberemus, et quod exinde facere volebamus, liberum arbitrium haberemus [...]
 Villa Cresciaco et Vallis, sicut per epistolas inter me et domno Arnulfo episcopo Metensis aecclesia convenit, in honore domini Stephani, aecclesiae suae. Sicut jam per epistolam nostram prius decrevi, post meum obitum ipsa sancta aecclesia in honore sancti Stephani, ad suam revocet ditionem; et nomen meum in libro vitae inibi qui tunc tempore pontifex fuerit jubeat.
 Tres partes colonica, quem de ratione Arnoaldo habuimus, ipsam basilicam domni Petri et peculiaris patroni Medardi episcopi post meum obitum habere jubeo [...]
 Hos has liberas liberae suae esse jubeo: Lebigiselo cum uxore et filiis, Chinemundo, Chrodosindo cum uxore et infantes, Theodogundi et filio suo Lopo et filia sua Emmane cum uxore et filii, Ebreleno cum uxore et filiis, Gaviulfo, Hiliano, Picoaldo cum uxore et filiis; filio et filia Maurello. similier et famulos meos, qui michi deservire videntur tam natione romana quam barbara, id sunt [...] Et defensionem sanctae basilicae domni Petri et Pauli apostolorum, ubi corpusculo meo in Dei nomen opto requiescere, habere mereantur [...] toti sub tuitione et defensione sancti Petri perserverent et das gustaldus [...]
 Rogo, cum testamentum meum a domnis et cumprovintialibus meis fuerit apertum, tunc per manum archidiaconi centum solidi per domnum episcopum Turonicae civitatis ad sepulcrum domni et peculiaris patroni mei sancti Martini antistitis - ubi comam deposui et annis singulis tributum meum ibidem redidi - transmittantur. Similiter ad basilicam sancti Albini antistitis per manum Angegavi pontificis sol[idi] quinquaginta dirigantur. Quos soli sacellos separatim cum brevicellis sigillatis ad unumquemque locum, sicut superius memini, in manu fideli dispensatori commendavi, sicut pagina testamenti mei eloquitur dispensandos. Tibi vero, archidiacone, demando atque praecipio, ut per omnes basilicas quae circa civitatem nostram esse noscuntur, hoc est: basilicae sancti Victurii peculiaris patroni mei dabis solidos XX; basilicae domni Vincentii ubi sanctus Domnolus episcopus requiescit, in honore ipsius martyris vel domni antistitis, dabis solidos XX; basilice sanctae Mariae vel sanctae Crucis dabis solidos X; idemque basilicae sancti Richomeri solidos X; basilicae sancti Juliani episcopi aut caballum aut in aurum dabis solidos V; basilicae sancti Hilarii dabis solidos V; ad oratoria domni Martini, domni Victorii vel sancti Petri infra muros in aurum aut in caballos solidos V; basilicae sancti Stephani martyris aut in aurum aut in caballos dabis solidos V. Similiter volo et jubeo, ut omnibus clericis nostris, qui hic in aecclesia deservire noscuntur, de quibus aut in quibuslibet rebus quinquaginta sol[idos] dones. Illud vero specialiter rogo, ut in superscripta loca, ubi aliquid, non ut decuit, sed in quantum virtus praevaluit, delegavi, nomen meum ac sacerdotes illorum in libro vitae jubeant adscribere et per singulas festivitates recitari [...]
In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit, on the sixth day of the kalends of April, in the thirty-second year of the reign of the most glorious lord, King Chlothar. I, Bertram, although an unworthy sinner, bishop of the sacrosanct church of Le Mans, sound (with God's help) in body and mind and sound in counsel, fearful of human fragility, have made my testament, and I have asked my son Ebbo to write it, and I have dictated it to him... And so when I, the aforesaid sinner Bertram, have departed from human affairs, and have done what I ought and completed nature's course, then you - the sacrosanct church of Le Mans, together with the holy and venerable basilica of the lord apostles Peter and Paul, which I have built within the sight of the civitas by my own efforts, for the defence of the civitas and the welfare of its people - you will be my heirs, and I command and order you to be my heirs; and all others are disinherited...
1. Therefore, I will and order that you, the sacrosanct church of Le Mans, my heir, are to have the villa in my power, which is called Bonnelles... Similarly, I wish and decree that you, my church, Lady and heir, are to have the land formerly acquired at Couture(-sur-Loir); half of which Ingoberga, the late queen, left to Saint Mary, at my request and for my service... and the other half I bought for a price from her brother, the late Magnulf, so that the whole land would come into the power of the holy church...
4. To the basilica of the saints and most blessed apostles Peter and Paul, which I established above as heir, together with the holy church of Le Mans: this is my offering, since in that same place, whenever God wills it, I desire to put my body in this holy basilica in honour of the holy apostles, so that those apostles, with their support, might deign to free me from infernal punishment for the sins which I am seen to perpetrate continually in this world; and, if not in glory (which I do not deserve), I might merit to obtain their favour in intercession and patronage. And so I grant to this holy basilica these villae in the territory of Le Mans, as well as in Etampes, Bordeaux and elsewhere, through deeds of title, as well as those which I granted to that basilica on its feast day [or: day of consecration]... And I ask and order the abbots, who shall endure there throughout the ages by divine authority and by the grace of the lord apostles, that throughout their lives this must above all be observed: that whatever should come to them each year from the above-named villae, whether in tribute or in aid, half of it - when it is my [day of] commemoration - should be paid out to the poor, either in clothing or in gold. The other half is to keep the lights in the holy basilica sufficiently burning at all times, so that the holy basilica is never without lighting, not even for one hour of the night. For it is proper that the lights should burn at all times, unceasingly, in honour of the aforesaid holy apostles, as much at the basilica of the holy apostles as at Sainte-Croix, which I built afterwards, and at the basilica of the lord Martin ad xenodochium, which is at Pontlieue...
18. To the basilica of my personal patron, the lord bishop Germanus, who most sweetly raised me, and who brought me (though unworthy) through his holy prayer to the honour of the priesthood: if it still exists, I grant to the basilica of the lord Vincentius, where his holy body rests, the villa of Bobane [either Boinville-le-Gaillard, or Saint-Germain-sur-l'Ecole]... but I make this condition, that if it should happen that his holy body is translated to the new basilica which the glorious Chilperic, the late king, constructed, then that villa is to be of service to wherever his holy body might be; and the holy bishop might deign to intercede for my my sins. I ask the abbot of that great place to recite my name in the book of life...
25. ... I have established a house, which I constructed at my own expense within the walls, at the right of the small gate, where the oratory in honour of the archangel Saint Michael is constructed; and I will that these houses should also go to the basilica of Saints Peter and Paul...
33. ... Concerning Pontlieue: that is, the matricula and xenodochium in honour of Saint Martin - this being the matricula of Saints Peter and Paul at Pontlieue. If we consider how great a number of sins are known to be committed in this world while we are held here, there can be no means of redeeming them, when so many have been committed. But almighty God, who wishes none to perish, with the abundant grace of his goodness, grants to us any sort of favour for those little gifts which, with great laments and mindful of our souls, our Redeemer sees us offering to the poor. Therefore, it is my vow, consideration and deliberation, concerning the basilica which is in honour of the most blessed bishop Saint Martin, my personal patron, at Pontlieue (where I have also, with God's aid, deposited his holy relics), that I transfer to that holy place these small estates, with these names...
39. ... The team of horses, which is seen to be directed from the horse-keeper's gates [?] over the property of the holy basilica of the lord Victorius the bishop: I wish for it to be granted to that holy basilica... [exactly what is meant here is unclear]
42. Similarly the villa Poillé(-sur-Végre), which I - having given 300 gold solidi to the venerable Abbot Bobenus - bought from the basilica of the lord Albinus: I order my sweetest great-nephew Leudochram to have this, so that he might possess it forever...
44. To the basilica of the most blessed Saint Germanus, bishop of Paris, who sweetly raised me, and through whose intercession I received the sacerdotal burden, although I had not earned it - to that basilica, which I built in his honour in the stronghold of the civitas of Le Mans, and within which I built dwellings and installed monks, who, in that place, with God's aid, perpetually attend to worship and service - I grant to that basilica in honour of this bishop the villae thus named...
50. The villa Voiron, which the glorious King Chlothar gave to me as a gift for our properties, which Egulf and Arnoald had held irregularly and made desolate, and which the pious king then gave to us [?]. But by his order I released it to the church of Metz in honour of the lord Stephen. And I have sought from my lord and brother, Bishop Arnulf, that he should receive those villae which were Egulf's and Arnoald's, while we might hold perpetually the villa Voiron; and we wished that this would be done, so that we might have a free judgement [?]...
59. The villa Crécy(-au-Mont) and La Vallée, as arranged through deeds exchanged between myself and the lord Arnulf, bishop of the church of Metz, (I grant) to his church in honour of Saint Stephen. As already determined in our document, after my death they will be recalled into the power of that holy church in honour of Saint Stephen, and whoever is then the bishop shall order my name to be written in the book of life there.
60. Three parts of the colonica, which we acquired from Arnoald, I order the basilica of the lord Peter and our personal patron Bishop Medard to have after my death...
67. I order these to be made free men and women: Lebigisel with his wife and children; Chinemund; Chrodosind with his wife and children; Thedogund and his son Lopus and his daughter Emmana, with his wife and children; Gaviulf; Hilianus; Picoald with his wife and children; and the son and daughter of Maurellus. Likewise my famuli who are seen to serve me, of Roman as well as barbarian birth, that is... And let them merit the protection of the holy basilica of the lord apostles Peter and Paul, where I wish in God's name for my body to rest... they will all continue to be under the safeguarding and defence of Saint Peter, and of their gastald...
68. I ask, when my testament has been laid open by my lords and co-provincials, that through the hand of the archdeacon 100 solidi will then be sent via the lord bishop of Tours to the sepulchre of my personal patron, the lord Saint Martin the bishop, the same place where I left my hair [presumably Bertram had received his tonsure at St Martin's], and every year pay tribute. Similarly, 50 solidi are to be directed to the basilica of Saint Albinus the bishop through the hand of the bishop of Angers. I entrust these little bags of solidi, with sealed letters [?], to each of these places, through the hand of my faithful steward, just as is set out in this document of my testament. And to you, archdeacon, I ask and command this, for all the basilicas which are known to exist around our civitas: that is, that you are to give 20 solidi to the basilica of Saint Victorius, my personal patron; 20 solidi to the basilica of Saint Vincentius, where Saint Domnolus the bishop rests, in honour of that martyr and that holy bishop; 10 solidi to the basilica of Saint Mary and Sainte-Croix; 10 solidi to the basilica of Saint Rigomer; 5 solidi to the basilica of Saint Julian the bishop, either in gold or horses; 5 solidi to the basilica of Saint Hilarius; 5 solidi to the oratory within-the-walls of the lords Martin, Victorius and Saint Peter, either in gold or horses; and 5 solidi to the basilica of the martyr Saint Stephen, either in gold or horses. Similarly, I wish and order that you give 50 solidi from whatever resources to all our clerics who are known to serve here in this church. I especially ask this: that in the above-written places where I have granted something - not because I deserve it, but because of the great power that is there [?] - the priests of those [places] should order the writing of my name in the Book of Life and have it recited on each feast day ...'
Text: Weidemann 1996, 6-62. Translation: B. Savill.
Other liturgical acts and ceremoniesFestivals
Saint’s feastCult Places
Cult building - independent (church) Places Named after Saint
Cult building - monastic
Burial site of a saint - unspecified
Cult building - secondary installation (fountain, pilgrims’ hostel)
MonasteryNon Liturgical Activity
Saint as patron - of an individualRelics
Bequests, donations, gifts and offerings
Distribution of alms
Construction of cult buildings
Bodily relic - entire bodyProtagonists in Cult and Narratives
Transfer, translation and deposition of relics
Ecclesiastics - bishopsCult Related Objects
Ecclesiastics - abbots
Monarchs and their family
Ecclesiastics - monks/nuns/hermits
SourceBertram (Bertrand/Bertechramnus, also Waldo) held the see of Le Mans from 586 until his death in 623; before his election he was archdeacon of the episcopal church of Paris under Bishop (later Saint) Germanus. The original manuscript of his will - according to eighteenth-century archival reports, a seven-metre scroll of multiple adjoined sheets of parchment - was lost during the French Revolution, but can be reconstructed today through various medieval and early modern copies, including the Acts of the Bishops of Le Mans (857/62; oldest surviving copy 1143/65), and the editio princeps of 1648.
DiscussionBertram's will exceeds forty printed pages in its most recent critical edition, and details an incomparably vast portfolio of properties (10 of Bertram's family, and 120 of his own, across Neustria, Aquitaine, Burgundy and Provence). Only the relatively few sections that expressly refer to a saint's cult have been included here on our database, and repeated references to already-named foundations - chiefly, the extramural Le Mans basilica of Peter and Paul - have been excised for the sake of clarity and brevity.
The cult sites named (in all but one case as beneficiaries) are listed below. The saints to whom the churches and oratories are dedicated are an interesting mix of biblical figures (Mary, Peter, Paul, Michael the Archangel and Stephen), two major saints of the early church (Vincentius and Martin), two particularly successful 6th-century saints (Germanus and Medard), and some much more local figures, three of them previous bishops of Le Mans (Rigomer, and bishops Iulianus, Victorius and Albinus); the grave of a fourth (and recent) saintly bishop of Le Mans, Domnolus, is also mentioned.
Three of these saints - Germanus of Paris, Martin of Tours and Victorius of Le Mans - are described by Bertram as his personal patrons. For three churches - the basilica of Peter and Paul outside Le Mans (where he asks to be buried), the basilica of Mary and the Holy Cross, also at Le Mans, and the rural basilica of Martin at Pontlieue, where Bertram had established a charitable xenodochium - Bertram orders that part of his endowment be used to keep lamps burning perpetually in the churches (clause 4).
The church of Mary (mother of Christ, S00033) at Le Mans, the episcopal church, one of the two heirs designated by Bertram at the opening of the will. This is usually referred to only as the 'sacrosanct church of Le Mans' (sacrosancta aeccelsia Cenomannica), without naming Mary as its saint: the first reference to Mary as its dedicatee comes only passingly in clause 1.
The basilica of Peter and Paul (Apostles, S00036 and S00008), outside the walls of Le Mans, the second of the two designated heirs. The protocol describes it as Bertram's own foundation; clause 4 states that an abbot and monastic community are installed there, and that it will be Bertram's place of burial (indeed he remains today at the site, now known as the Église Notre-Dame de la Couture). It is one of three churches which Bertram orders to be lit perpetually.
The basilica of Germanus (bishop of Paris, ob. 576, S01166) at Le Mans, built by Bertram within the city's 'stronghold' (obedum: clause 44).
The basilica of Hilarius (presumably the bishop of Poitiers, but possibly Hilarius of Auciacum/Oizé) at Le Mans, described only as one of the churches 'around the city' (circa civitatem: clause 68).
The basilica of Iulianus/Julian (early bishop of Le Mans, S01182) at Le Mans, described only as one of the churches 'around the city' (circa civitatem: clause 68).
The basilica of Mary (mother of Christ, S00033) and the Holy Cross/Sainte-Croix at Le Mans, described as one of the churches 'around the city' (circa civitatem: clause 68); its co-dedication to Mary is not divulged when the basilica is first mentioned in clause 4, which states that it had been built by Bertram after the construction of the basilica of Peter and Paul. It is one of three churches which Bertram orders to be lit perpetually.
The basilica of Rigomer (ascetic of Le Mans, S02663) at Le Mans, described only as one of the churches 'around the city' (circa civitatem: clause 68).
The basilica of Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) at Le Mans, described only as one of the churches 'around the city' (circa civitatem: clause 68).
The basilica of Victorius (bishop of Le Mans, ob. c. 490, S01280) at Le Mans; the saint is described as a 'personal patron' of Bertram (clause 68).
The basilica of Vincentius (deacon and martyr of Saragossa and Valencia, S00290) at Le Mans, where the body of Saint Domnolus (bishop of Le Mans, ob. 581, S01179) rests (clause 68).
The oratory of Martin (ascetic and bishop of Tours, ob. 397, 00050) Victorius (bishop of Le Mans, ob. c. 490, S01280) and Peter (the Apostle, S00036), within the walls of Le Mans, described only as one of the churches 'around the city' (circa civitatem: clause 68).
The oratory of Michael the Archangel (S00181) at Le Mans, within the city walls, near one of its gates (clause 25); it is only mentioned in passing by Bertram, and receives nothing in his will.
The basilica of Martin (ascetic and bishop of Tours, ob. 397, 00050) at Pontlieue (c. 2 miles/3 km south of Le Mans), described as a xenodochium (clauses 4 and 33) and matricula of the basilica of Peter and Paul (clause 33); Bertram has deposited unspecified relics of the saint at the site (clause 33). It is one of three churches which Bertram orders to be lit perpetually.
The grave of Martin (ascetic and bishop of Tours, ob. 397, 00050) at Tours (c. 50 miles/80 km south of Le Mans), where Bertram has paid annual tribute to his 'personal patron', and where he had been admitted into the priesthood (clause 68).
The basilica of Albinus (monk and bishop of Angers, ob. 550, S00181) at Angers (c. 55 miles/90 km south-west of Le Mans), where an abbot is installed (clause 42).
The basilica of Vincentius (deacon and martyr of Saragossa and Valencia, S00290) at Paris (c. 130 miles/200 km north-east of Le Mans), where the body of Bertram's 'personal patron' Germanus of Paris rests; also the site of a newer basilica built by Chilperic (king of the Franks/Neustria, 561-84: cf. E02190), into which Bertram anticipates the translation of Germanus' relics (clause 18). The site is known today as Saint-Germain-des-Prés.
The basilica of Peter (presumably the Apostle, S00036) and Medard (bishop of Vermand buried at Soissons, ob. c. 560, S00168) at Soissons (c. 190 miles/300 km north-east of Le Mans), the latter saint being a 'personal patron' of Bertram (clause 60: its location at Soissons can be inferred, but is not mentioned in the text).
The church of Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) at Metz (c. 310 miles/500 km north-east of Le Mans), the episcopal church presided over by Bishop Arnulf (the future Saint Arnulf, $S02103) (clauses 50 and 59).
BibliographyEdition and monograph
M. Weidemann, Das Testament des Bischofs Berhtramn von Le Mans. Untersuchungen zu Besitz und Geschichte einer Fränkischen Familie im 6. und 7. Jahrhundert (Mainz, 1996).
|ID||Name||Name in Source||Identity||S00008||Paul, the Apostle||Paulus||Certain||S00030||Stephen, the First Martyr||Stephanus||Certain||S00033||Mary, Mother of Christ||Maria||Certain||S00036||Peter, the Apostle||Petrus||Certain||S00050||Martin, ascetic and bishop of Tours, ob. 397||Martinus||Certain||S00168||Medard, bishop of Vermand buried at Soissons, ob. c. 560||Medardus||Certain||S00181||Michael, the Archangel||Michael||Certain||S00183||Hilarius/Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, ob. 367||Hilarius||Uncertain||S00290||Vincentius/Vincent, deacon and martyr of Saragossa and Valencia||Vincentius||Certain||S01166||Germanus, bishop of Paris, ob. 576||Germanus||Certain||S01179||Domnolus, bishop of Le Mans, ob. 581||Domnolus||Certain||S01181||Albinus, monk and bishop of Angers, ob. c. 550||Albinus||Certain||S01182||Iulianus, early bishop of Le Mans, 3rd or 4th c.||Julianus||Certain||S01280||Victorius, bishop of Le Mans, ob. c. 490||Victurius, Victorius||Certain||S02663||Rigomer, ascetic of Le Mans (north-west Gaul), 6th c.||Richomerus||Certain||S02664||Hilarius, priest of Auciacum/Oizé (north-west Gaul), 4th c.||Hilarius||Uncertain|
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