Site logo

The Cult of Saints in Late Antiquity


from its origins to circa AD 700, across the entire Christian world


Name

Stephen, the First Martyr

Saint ID

S00030

Number in BH

BHL 7848-7895, BHG 1649-1649h

Reported Death Not Before

36

Reported Death Not After

40

Gender
Male
Type of Saint
Other New Testament saints, Martyrs
Related Evidence Records
IDTitle
E00037Gregory of Tours, in his Life of *Quintianus (bishop of Rodez and Clermont, ob. 525, S00028), recounts the death of the saint, his burial in Clermont (central Gaul) in the church of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), and miracles at his grave. From Gregory's Life of the Fathers, written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 573/594.
E00079The Syriac Chronicle of Edessa, records that Rabbula became bishop of Edessa in 412 and built a church dedicated to *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) in Edessa (northern Mesopotamia), on the orders of the emperor; the building had previously functioned as a synagogue. Written in Edessa, in second half of 6th c.
E00108According to the Conversion of Georgia, written in Georgian in the 7th c., during the rule of King Archil in the early 5th c., Stepancminda, or the church of *Stephen (The First Martyr, S00030) was built on the banks of the Aragvi River.
E00112Terracotta moulds for the manufacture of lamps and flasks with Greek inscriptions naming *Onnophrios (Egyptian Anchorite, 4th c., S00055), *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), and *Theodore (presumably the soldier and martyr of Amaseia and Euchaita, S00480), from Elephantine, Upper Egypt. Probably 5th–7th c.
E00165According to the Book of Miracles of St Stephen, the arrival of relics of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) at Uzalis (central North Africa) in c. 418 was preceded by a vision in which a pious women was assured of their veracity. Written in Latin at Uzalis in the 420s.
E00307According to the Book of Miracles of St Stephen, a woman suffering facial paralysis touched with her head the relics of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) in a church in Uzalis (central North Africa), in c. 420. Written in Latin at Uzalis in the 420s.
E00330Lamp from Egypt with Greek inscription (6th–7th c.) referring to *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), exact provenance unknown.
E00367Gregory of Tours writes the Glory of the Martyrs (Liber in Gloria Martyrum), in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 580/594. Overview entry.
E00459The Piacenza Pilgrim records his visit to the basilica of Holy Sion (Jerusalem), formerly the house of *James (almost certainly the 'brother of the Lord', S00058), in which he saw relics of the Passion, stones with which *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) was stoned, the stone into which the cross of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036) was set, the chalice of the *Apostles (S00084), and the elaborately encased skull of the martyr *Theodota (possibly Theodote, martyr of Nicaea, S00257), from which he drank. Account of an anonymous pilgrim, written in Latin, probably in Placentia (northern Italy), c. 570.
E00468The Piacenza Pilgrim records the basilica of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) outside Jerusalem, built by the empress Eudocia and containing the tomb of the martyr, and her tomb close to that of the saint; also the tomb of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259) at Diospolis, where miracles occur; all in Palestine. Account of an anonymous pilgrim, written in Latin, probably in Placentia (northern Italy), c. 570.
E00490Gregory of Tours, in his Glory of the Martyrs (24), mentions relics of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) at the shrine of the holy spring in Osset near Seville (Spain). Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 580/594.
E00516Gregory of Tours, in his Glory of the Martyrs (33), tells of an oratory of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) in Tours, which after an enlargement ordered by Gregory was provided with his relics; these were collected from the oratory of the bishop's residence in Tours, from a reliquary containing the relics of several saints, which miraculously, and unaided, first sprung open and later locked itself. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 580/594.
E00517Gregory of Tours, in his Glory of the Martyrs (33), tells of relics of the blood of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) in the altar of a church in Bourges (central Gaul), where a man falsely accusing others of perjury was punished; in the late 560s or early 570s. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 580/594.
E00518Gregory of Tours, in his Glory of the Martyrs (33), tells of a woman, who in 577/585 experienced while fully awake a vision of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), accompanied by other saints, in the crypt of a church of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036) in Bordeaux (south-west Gaul), where relics of unspecified saints were housed; Stephen, who had just rescued a ship at sea, dripped sea water on the floor; absorbed by the woman into a cloth, this acted as a powerful relic and was used by the bishop of Bordeaux in the consecration of churches. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 580/594.
E00675The Revelation of St Stephen, by Loukian of Kfar Gamla, describing the discovery in 415 of the relics of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) and his companions Nicodemus, Gamaliel and Abibas, is translated from Greek into Syriac between the middle of the 5th and the middle of the 6th century.
E00720Inscription with prayer in Greek, from a church in Kasossos near Mylasa (Caria, western Asia Minor). Refers to saints and other holy figures: *Abraham (Old Testament patriarch, S00275), *Jacob (Old Testament patriarch, S00280), *Moses (Old Testament prophet and lawgiver, S00241), *Elijah (Old Testament prophet, S00217), *Elisha (Old Testament prophet, S00239), the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008), other unnamed Apostles (S00084), unnamed Confessors (S00184), *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), and a virgin *Eirene (possibly the martyr of Magedon, S02162). Probably late antique (6th/8th c.) or later.
E00741Greek list from the city of Oxyrhynchos (Middle Egypt), presenting festal payments expected from various churches and shrines, most of them dedicated to saints, including *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), *Ioustos/Justus (soldier and martyr of Antinoopolis, S01172), *John the Baptist (S00020), *Menas (soldier and martyr of Abu Mena, S00073), *Thekla (follower of Apostle Paul, S00092), *Euphemia (martyr of Chalcedon, S00017), *Neilos (ascetic of Sinai, S00405), *Viktor (son of Romanos, Egyptian martyr, S00749), possibly *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), *Gabriel (the Archangel, S00192), *Philoxenos (saint with cult at Oxyrhynchos, S00443), and *Ioulianos/Julianus (probably the martyr of Cilicia, S00305), datable to the 5th c.
E00826Greek building inscription for a church founded to the glory of God, Jesus Christ and *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), by Basilios, a bishop presumably of Mylasa (Caria, western Asia Minor). Found in a ruined church near Mylasa. Probably 5th or 6th c.
E00873Greek inscription commemorating the foundation of a church of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) by a family apparently devoted to the saint. Found near Aizanoi (Phrygia, west central Asia Minor).
E00911Greek dedicatory inscription mentioning *Stephen (the First Martyr, 00030). Found at Dorylaion (Phrygia, west central Asia Minor). Probably late antique.
E00975Quodvultdeus of Carthage, in his Book of Promises, names several tombs of apostles and saints which guarantee the truthfulness of the doctrine of the Church: in Jerusalem, of *James (probably the 'brother of the Lord', S00058) and *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030); at Ephesus, *John (the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042); in Asia, *Andrew (the Apostle, S00288); in Rome, the Apostles0 *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and *Paul S00008). Written in Latin,probably during Quodvultdeus' exile in Italy, 440/454.
E00983Greek inscription on a boundary stone of a church of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030). Found near Amisos (Helenopontus, northern Asia Minor). 491-518.
E00985Quodvultdeus of Carthage tells a story of a possessed girl whom the bishop locked in a female monastery in Carthage, in which relics of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) were deposited, in 434. Account in the Book of Promises, written in Latin, probably during Quodvultdeus' exile in Italy in 440/454.
E01107Greek inscription with a spurious poem attributed to the empress Eudocia, in honour of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), praising him as the healer of afflictions of the left foot and knee. Found in Safranbolu/Theodoroupolis (Paphlagonia, northern Asia Minor). Long believed to have been carved in 439, but actually dating to the late 19th c.
E01109Augustine of Hippo, in his City of God (22.8), tells how a blind woman in Aquae Tibilitanae (central North Africa) was healed when she touched flowers which had been in contact with a reliquary containing relics of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), transferred to this place by a bishop, in the early 420s. Written in Latin in Hippo Regius (North Africa), 426/427.
E01111Augustine of Hippo, in his City of God (22.8), tells how relics of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) were deposited in Castellum Sinitense, close to Hippo Regius (central North Africa); the local bishop was healed when he carried them in procession; all in the early 420s. Written in Latin in Hippo, 426/427.
E01116Augustine of Hippo, in his City of God (22.8), tells how relics of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), were deposited in Calama (central North Africa); a few men, from Calama and other places, were healed there and one man was converted. Written in Latin in Hippo Regius (central North Africa), 426/427.
E01117Augustine of Hippo, in his City of God (22.8), tells how relics of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), deposited on the estate of Audurus (North Africa), saved a child driven over by a wagon. Written in Latin in Hippo (central North Africa), 426/427.
E01118Augustine of Hippo, in his City of God (22.8), tells how a tunic deposited at the memorial shrine (memoria) of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), on the estate of Audurus (North Africa), brought to life a virgin devoted to God. Written in Latin in Hippo Regius (central North Africa), 426/427.
E01119Augustine of Hippo, in his City of God (22.8), tells how the daughter of a Syrian was brought back to life when touched by her dress, which had been in contact with the memorial shrine (memoria) of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), in Hippo Regius (central North Africa). Written in Latin in Hippo, 426/427.
E01120Augustine of Hippo, in his City of God (22.8), tells how a dead boy in Hippo Regius (central North Africa), anointed 'with oil of the martyr' *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), was brought back to life. Written in Latin in Hippo, 426/427.
E01125Augustine of Hippo, in his City of God (22.8), claims that a number of miracles were wrought by the power of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), in Hippo Regius, Uzalis, and Calama (all in central North Africa), some of them being recorded in written accounts (libelli), and tells the story of a noble woman who miraculously learned to discard a talisman ring. Written in Latin in Hippo, 426/427.
E01135Augustine of Hippo, in his City of God (22.8), tells how two siblings from Cappadocia (central Asia Minor)were healed at the memorial shrine of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) in Hippo Regius (central North Africa) at Easter c. 425. The account of this miracle is publicly read in the church. Written in Latin in Hippo, 426/427.
E01228The so-called cave of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), on the island of Tinos (the Aegean Islands) houses dozens graffiti and dipinti invoking God, Stephen, and *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033). Probably 6th-13th c.
E01305The Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome in the 530s, and re-edited before 546, in its account of *Leo (bishop of Rome, ob. 461, S00423), tells how a certain Demetrias built a basilica of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) on the via Latina outside Rome; how Leo himself established a monastery at St Peter's, built a basilica to *Cornelius (bishop and martyr of Rome, S00172) near the cemetery of Callixtus on the via Appia, carried out a number of repairs at the basilicas of the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008) and at the Lateran, and replaced the liturgical vessels of the city's tituli, which had been stolen by the Vandals. It also gives an account of the Council held in the basilica of *Euphemia (martyr of Chalcedon, S00017) at Chalcedon, near Constantinople, and records *Leo's burial in Rome at the basilica of St Peter on 11 April [AD 461].
E01307The Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome in the 530s, and re-edited before 546, in its account of *Hilarus (bishop of Rome, ob. 468, S00566) names his refurbishments in, and offerings to, several churches and oratories in Rome: dedicated to *John (Apostle and Evangelist, S00042), *John the Baptist (S00020), the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008), *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), *Laurence (deacon and martyr of Rome, S00037), and *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030).
E01313The Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome in the 530s, and re-edited before 546, in its account of *Simplicius (bishop of Rome, ob. 483, S00729) tells how he dedicated churches in and around Rome to *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), *Andrew (the Apostle, S00288), and *Bibiana (martyr of Rome under the emperor Julian, S00728); made arrangements concerning clergy in the churches of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), and *Laurence (deacon and martyr of Rome, S00037); and made gifts to St Peter's basilica; it closes with a record of his burial in St Peter's basilica on 2 March [AD 483].
E01396The early 5th c. Syriac Martyrology commemorates on 26 December the martyrdom of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030).
E01431Fragmentary Greek dedicatory inscription, commemorating an offering to God and *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), probably the construction of the building on which the inscription was displayed. Found at Constantina/Tella (north Mesopotamia/Osroene). Probably 5th-6th c.
E01629The short Life of *Theodorus (bishop of Rome, ob. 649, S00856) in the Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome soon after his death, records his transfer of the bodies of *Primus and Felicianus (martyrs of Rome, S00855) from the via Nomentana outside Rome to the intramural church of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), and his gifts there; the building of a church of *Valentinus (priest and martyr of Rome, S00433) on the via Flaminia to the north of Rome; and oratories dedicated to *Sebastianus (martyr of Rome, S00400) at the Lateran, and *Euplus (martyr of Catania, S00207) outside the gate of St *Paul (the Apostle, S00008). It also refers to the church of *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033) 'at the Crib' [= S. Maria Maggiore], and to Theodorus' burial at St. *Peter's (the Apostle, S00036) on 14 May.
E01651Floor-mosaic showing a church, labelled 'of Saint Stephen' (certainly the First Martyr, S00030). Found in a church at Kapropera/El Bāra in the territory of Apamea on the Orontes (central Syria). Probably mid-6th c.
E01700The short Life of *Conon (bishop of Rome, ob. 687, S00891) in the Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome soon after his death, mentions a gathering of soldiers at the basilica of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) in Rome, and Conon's burial at the church of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036) on 21 September.
E01808Gregory of Nyssa in the 380s composes his Encomium on *Basil (bishop of Caesarea, ob. 379, S00780), which he delivers during the saint’s festival on 1 January. Basil’s memory is added to a series of major feasts, namely Christmas, *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), and the Apostles *Peter (S00036), *James (S00108),*John (S00042), and *Paul (S00008). The author argues that Basil deserves to be honoured after these figures. He mentions miracles during Basil’s life. Written in Greek in Cappadocia (central Asia Minor).
E01815Two Greek inscriptions on a boundary stone marking the area of asylum of a church dedicated to *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030). Found in Djuwaniyeh, between Antioch-on-the-Orontes and Beroia/Aleppo (north Syria). One of them is dated 544.
E01819Fragment probably of a bronze reliquary cross with a labelled depiction of probably *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030). Found near Belen (Amanus Mountains, northwest Syria). 6th c. or later.
E01830Gregory of Nyssa, in the 380s, delivers his Encomium on *Stephen the First Martyr I (S00030), during a service held on his feast day, probably at Nyssa in Cappadocia (central Asia Minor). He analyses the story as recounted by Acts. Written in Greek.
E01831Gregory of Nyssa in his Second Encomium on *Stephen the First Martyr (S00030), written in 386, refers to the feasts of Stephen, and of the Apostles *Peter (S00036), *James (S00108), and *John (S00042), probably celebrated on 26 and 27 December. Composed in Greek in Cappadocia (central Asia Minor).
E01851Augustine of Hippo, in his Letter 212, of c. 425, recommends to an African bishop two women who carry relics of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030). Written in Latin in Hippo (central North Africa).
E01902The Apostolic Constitutions, of 375/380, recommend that martyrs be honoured, invoking the examples of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) and *James ('brother of the Lord', S00058). It also condemns the veneration of false martyrs, and prohibits belching, debauchery, singing, and various pagan practices, perhaps associated with Christian feasts. Written in Greek, probably in Syria.
E01904Gregory of Nazianzus in his Oration 4 (Against Julian I), of 362/363, refers to the deaths of martyrs, naming the Apostles *John (S00042), *Peter (S00036), *Paul (S00008), and *James (S00108), *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), *Luke (the Evangelist, S00442), *Andrew (the Apostle, S00288), and *Thekla (follower of the Apostle Paul, S00092). He refers to the festivals held in their honour and the miracles performed by their bodily remains. Written in Greek at Nazianzus (central Asia Minor).
E01939Inscribed element of a reliquary cross with labelled depictions of probably *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), and possibly *Nicholas (bishop of Myra under Constantine, S00520), and *Helena (empress and mother of Constantine, ob. 328, S00185). Reportedly seen in Ḥimṣ/Emesa (northwest Phoenicia). Probably 6th-7th c.
E01951Greek building inscription probably for a sanctuary of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030). Found near Liftāya to the west of Ḥimṣ/Emesa (northwest Phoenicia). Dated 573.
E01988Augustine of Hippo, in a sermon preached in an unidentified city of central North Africa, mentions unspecified healing miracles produced daily at the memorial shrine of a martyr, probably *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030). Sermon 61A, delivered in Latin in the 420s.
E02011Gregory of Tours, in his Histories (1.25), mentions several 1st, 2nd, and 3rd century martyrs, namely *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), *James ('the brother of the Lord', S00058), *Mark (the Evangelist, S00293), *Stephen (the first martyr, S00030), *Clemens (bishop of Rome, martyr of the Crimea, S00111), *Symeon (bishop and martyr of Jerusalem, S01139), *Ignatios, (bishop of Antioch and martyr of Rome, S00649), *Iustinus (philosopher and martyr of Rome, S01140), *Polycarp (bishop and martyr of Smyrna, S00004), *Cornelius (bishop and martyr of Rome, S00172), and *Cyprian (bishop and martyr of Carthage, S00411). Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 575/594.
E02013Gregory of Tours, in his Histories (1.31), recounts the coming of Christianity to Bourges (central Gaul), and mentions relics of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) in its most important church. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 575/594.
E02021Gregory of Tours, in his Histories (2.6), Gregory of Tours describes the miraculous survival of an oratory in Metz (eastern Gaul) with relics of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), when the city was burnt by the Huns in 451. In a vision, Stephen is seen seeking the help of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008), to save the whole city, or at least his oratory. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 575/594.
E02026Gregory of Tours, in his Histories (2.17), tells of narrative frescoes in the church of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), constructed in the suburbs of Clermont (central Gaul) by the wife of Namatius, bishop of Clermont (c. 446-462). Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 575/594.
E02043Hydatius in his Latin Chronicle records the discovery near Jerusalem in 415 of the body of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030); written probably in Chaves (north-west Spain), c. 468-469.
E02049Floor-mosaic with a Greek inscription commemorating the completion and paving of a church (naos) dedicated to *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030). Found at Riḥāb, between Bostra and Gerasa/Jerash (Jordan/the Roman province of Arabia). Dated 620.
E02122Greek inscription on a lintel with the name of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030). Found at Nāmr al-Hawā (to the south of Sheikh Meskin and to the north of Adraha, Roman province of Arabia). Probably late antique.
E02129Greek list, most likely from Oxyrhynchos (Middle Egypt), presenting deacons and sub-deacons of churches and martyr shrines, including a martyrion of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), datable to the 5th century.
E02131Floor-moasic with a Greek inscription commemorating the paving of a church of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), and a reliquary. Found at Umm er-Rasas/Kastron Mefaa, to the southeast of Madaba (Roman province of Arabia). Dated probably 718 or 785.
E02145Asterius of Amasea, in his Homily XII, On *Stephen the First Martyr (S00030), delivered on the saint’s festival on 26 December, presents a contemplation on the story and martyrdom of Stephen. Written in Greek at Amaseia/Amasea of Pontus (northern Asia Minor), in the late 4th or early 5th c..
E02185Gregory of Tours, in his Histories (6.11), in a story set in 581, mentions the church of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) outside Marseille (southern Gaul). Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 581/594.
E02294Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon on the feast of *Marianus and Iacobus (martyrs of Numidia, S01132). He compares the mother of Marianus to *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033) and encourages his audience to imitate the martyrs. Sermon 284, delivered in Latin, probably in Carthage (North Africa), possibly in either 397 or 418.
E02344Avitus, a priest of Braga (north-west Spain) sojourning in Jerusalem, writes a letter to Bishop Balconius and the clergy of Braga, to accompany relics from the body of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), recently discovered at Caphargamala (near Jerusalem); these Avitus sends in the care of the priest Orosius. With the letter and relics, Avitus also sends his translation of Lucianus of Caphargamala's account of the discovery of the body of Stephen (E07606). Written in Latin in 416. Full text, and full English translation.
E02397Gregory of Tours, in his Histories (10.1), quotes a sermon preached by Pope Gregory the Great after his election, ordering the Roman community to go in procession from seven churches in Rome: of *Cosmas/Kosmas and Damianus (brothers, physician martyrs of Syria, S00385), *Gervasius and Protasius (martyrs of Milan, S00313), *Petrus and Marcellinus (martyrs of Rome, S00577), *Iohannes and Paulus (brothers and eunuchs, martyrs of Rome, S00384), *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), *Euphemia (martyr of Chalcedon, S00017), *Clement, (bishop of Rome, martyr of the Crimea, S00111). They met together at the church of *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033); AD 590. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 590/594.
E02467Coptic letter, from Ape (Upper Egypt), mentioning a church of Apa *Stephanos (presumably Stephen the First Martyr, S00030), datable to the 7th/8th century.
E02493The Martyrdom of *Euticius (priest and martyr of Ferento, S01228) is written in Latin at an uncertain date, perhaps in the 9th c. It narrates Euticius’ celebration of liturgy at the tomb of the martyrs *Gratilianus and Felicissima (martyrs of Faleri, S01477), his arrest, tortures endured, death, and his burial by the bishop Dionysius in a crypt fifteen miles outside Ferento, where later, according to an appendix, a church with a miraculous spring is built.
E02566Greek graffito on a roof tile, with an invocation of *Paulos (probably the Apostle, S00008, but perhaps another saintly Paulos) and *Germanos (possibly the martyr of Caesarea in Palestine, S00195) on behalf of the circus faction of the Blues; a fragmentary dedicatory inscription to a saint whose name is lost; and a reliquary. All found in the so-called 'Church of St. Paul' at Umm er-Rasas/Kastron Mefaa, to the southeast of Madaba (Roman province of Arabia/Jordan). Probably late 6th or 7th c.
E02567John Chrysostom delivers a homily On the Holy Martyrs during a festival at Antioch, held on 2 August, after the feast of the *Maccabean Martyrs (pre-Christian Jewish martyrs of Antioch, S00303); the celebration concerns unnamed martyrs of the countryside near Antioch. John refers to the power of relics, which is not diminished by their partition. Written in Greek at Antioch (Syria), 386/397.
E02690Gregory of Tours, in his Glory of the Confessors (72), tells of the cemetery at Autun (central Gaul) where the holy dead are heard singing psalms; two men saw these souls in the adjacent church of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) and were warned by one of them to leave the town; the one who didn't do so died. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 587/588.
E02707Fragmentary Greek inscription with the heading of an imperial letter from Justinian, probably concerning the boundaries of asylum of a sanctuary of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) in Jerusalem, presumably the Eudocian church and monastery to the north of the north city gate. Found in Jerusalem (Roman Palaestina I). Probably c. 533.
E02708Fragmentary Greek inscription with a list of relics probably deposited by the empress Eudocia at the church of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) in Jerusalem, to the north of the north city gate. Found in Jerusalem (Roman province of Palaestina I). Possibly 460.
E02836The Greek Martyrdom of *Polyeuktos (soldier and martyr of Melitene, S00325), of the 4th/5th c., recounts the story of two soldiers and friends, the Christian Nearchos and the pagan Polyeuktos. The latter becomes a martyr. Probably written in Melitene (eastern Asia Minor), with a later appendix.
E02837The appendix to the Greek Martyrdom of *Polyeuktos of Melitene (soldier and martyr of Melitene, S00325), of the 4th/5th c., mentions the transfer of a blood relic from Melitene to the city of Kana (in Lycaonia or Egypt?). It requires the annual celebration of the saint’s feast and the reading of his martyrdom account, and mentions feasts on 9 January and 25 December. Probably written in Egypt.
E02907The Church Calendar of Ioane Zosime, compiled in Georgian in the 10th century, based however on 5th-7th c. prototypes from the Holy Land, commemorates on 14 January, in the church of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), *Nino (Enlightener of Georgia, S00072) and *Hermylos and Stratonikos (martyrs of Singidunum, S01814).
E02945The early seventh-century Georgian version of the Lectionary of Jerusalem prescribes service in the church of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) on 14 January.
E02953The early seventh-century Georgian version of the Lectionary of Jerusalem commemorates on 22 January, at the church of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), *All Martyrs (S01151) from Stephen to the present.
E02967Lid of a limestone reliquary, covered by four Greek inscriptions referring to *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), *Christophoros (martyr of Pamphylia, S00616), a certain *John (probably the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042), and the *Apostles, all of them with unnamed companions (?). Unknown provenance (possibly Syria), now in the Benaki Museum (Athens). Probably 5th-6th c.
E02982Peter Chrysologus, bishop of Ravenna, preaches a sermon (Sermon 154) for the feast of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030). Delivered in Latin in Ravenna (northern Italy), c. 450.
E03196The early seventh-century Georgian version of the Lectionary of Jerusalem commemorates on 15 June the deposition of the relics of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030).
E03208The early seventh-century Georgian version of the Lectionary of Jerusalem commemorates at the church of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) on 27 June the deposition of the relics *Tarachos, Probos and Andronikos (martyrs in Anazarbos, Cilicia, S00710).
E03265The Georgian version of the Lectionary of Jerusalem, composed in Greek in the seventh century and translated in the eighth, commemorates on 5 July the deposition of the relics of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030).
E03278The early seventh-century Georgian version of the Lectionary of Jerusalem commemorates on 18 July commemorates *Rachel (wife of the Old Testament patriarch Jacob, S00701) at her tomb on the road to Bethlehem, the deposition of the relics of Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), John the Baptist (S00020), Zechariah (father of John the Baptist, S00597), *Phokas (martyr of Antioch, S00413), *Tarachos, Probos and Andronikos (martyrs of Anazarbos, Cilicia, S00710).
E03285The early seventh-century Georgian version of the Lectionary of Jerusalem commemorates on 25 July the deposition of of the relics of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) and *John the Baptist (S00020).
E03471The early seventh-century Georgian version of the Lectionary of Jerusalem commemorates on 27 December *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030).
E03499Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon on the feast of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), in which he explains why the Church celebrates only the day of a martyr's death. Sermon 314, delivered in Latin, probably in Hippo Regius (North Africa), sometime between 391 and 430.
E03555Three Greek inscriptions from Khirbet el-Jiljil and Beit Jimal (close to Eleutheropolis, Roman province of Palaestina I) once implausibly identified as referring to a shrine built at the site of the tomb of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) at Caphargamala, but actually connected to a wine press and a regular dining room. Probably 5th-6th c.
E03556Floor-mosaics with Greek inscriptions invoking the intercession of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) and referring to a saint whose name is lost. Found at Yishub/Khirbet Kafr Sibb near Baḥan, c. 5 km to the north of modern Tulkarm (Samaria, Roman province of Palestina I). Probably 6th c.
E03562Floor-mosaics with inscriptions invoking *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) and the God of St. Stephen, and mentioning a bishop involved in the embellishment of places of saintly cult. Found at Ḥorvat Be’er-Shema/Khirbet el-Far (probably ancient Birsama/Bersamon) in the northwestern Negev, between Gaza and Elousa, close to Beersheva; Roman province of Palaestina I). Probably late 5th - early 6th c.
E03587Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon on the feast of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030; he emphasises that the story of Stephen is well known from the canonical text which is read at his feast, whereas for the feasts of other martyrs relevant texts are less accessible. Sermon 315, delivered in Latin, possibly in Hippo Regius (North Africa) in 416/417.
E03592Marcellinus Comes, in his Chronicle, records the discovery of the body of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) by the priest Lucianus in 415. Written in Latin in Constantinople, 518/534.
E03593Marcellinus Comes, in his Chronicle, describes how the relics of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) were brought to the West by the presbyter and historian Orosius in 416. Written in Latin in Constantinople, 518/534.
E03597Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon at the feast of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), referring to miracles which occur at his relics. Sermon 316, delivered in Latin, probably in Hippo Regius (North Africa), 425/430.
E03601Marcellinus Comes, in his Chronicle, reports that relics of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) were brought to Constantinople from Jerusalem by the empress Eudocia and placed in the church of *Laurence (deacon and martyr of Rome, S00037) in 439. Written in Latin in Constantinople, 518/534.
E03605Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon, either at the feast of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) or at the translation of his relics to Hippo Regius (North Africa); he states that the body of Stephen is deposited in many places, refers to dust (pulvis) which attracts people to the church in which he is preaching, and expresses his belief that miracles will occur in this place. Sermon 317, delivered in Latin, probably in Hippo, 425/430.
E03606Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon at the deposition of relics of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) in Hippo Regius (North Africa); he recalls the discovery and distribution of these relics and refers to the finding of the relics of *Gervasius and Protasius (martyrs of Milan, S00313) in Milan (northern Italy), which took place when he was living there. Sermon 318, delivered in Latin in Hippo Regius (North Africa), c. 425.
E03610Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon, probably at a feast of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030); he reminds his audience of the discovery of Stephen's relics, emphasises that his miracles are performed by God's power, and refers to written testimonies (libelli) of those who have been cured. Sermon 319, delivered in Latin in Hippo Regius (North Africa), 425/430.
E03631Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon on Easter Sunday, referring to a man who has has just been healed by the agency of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030); sight of the healed man is better testimony than any written account (libellus). Sermon 320, delivered in Latin in Hippo Regius (North Africa), 424/427.
E03632Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon on Easter Monday, promising that a written account (libellus) of a man healed by the agency of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) will be read next day. Sermon 321, delivered in Latin in Hippo Regius (North Africa), 424/427.
E03660Augustine of Hippo tells how a man's own account of his miraculous healing at the relics of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) in Hippo Regius (North Africa) is read out there during the mass on Easter Tuesday. The account presents a story of siblings seeking healing in various holy places, including shrines of *Laurence (deacon and martyr of Rome, S00037) in Ravenna (northern Italy), and of Stephen in Ancona (central Italy) and Uzalis (North Africa). The account is preserved as Augustine's Sermon 322, delivered in Latin in Hippo, 424/427.
E03791The Church Calendar of Ioane Zosime, compiled in Georgian in the 10th c., based however on 5th-7th c. prototypes from Palestine, commemorates on 5 July *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), and *Dometios (monk of Syria, later 4th c., S00414), *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), and *Martha (mother of Symeon Stylites the Younger, ob. late 6th c., S00864).
E03804The Church Calendar of Ioane Zosime, compiled in Georgian in the 10th c., based however on 5th-7th c. prototypes from Palestine, commemorates on 18 July *Rachel (wife of the Old Testament patriarch Jacob, S00701), the deposition of the relics of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), *John the Baptist (S00020), *Zechariah (father of John the Baptist, S00597), *Phokas (martyr in Antioch, S00413), *Athanasios (martyr in Klysma under Diocletian and Maximian, S01216), *Tarachos, Probos and Andronikos (martyrs of Anazarbos, Cilicia, S00710), *Sergios (soldier and martyr of Rusafa, S00023) and *Bakchos (soldier and martyr of Barbalissos, S00079), and *Dioskoros (probably Decian martyr of Egypt, S00230).
E03820The Church Calendar of Ioane Zosime, compiled in Georgian in the 10th c., based however on 5th-7th c. prototypes from Palestine, commemorates on 2 August probably *Quintilianus and Dadas (martyrs of Durostorum, S00551), and *Seven Sleepers of Ephesus (brothers who fell asleep during the persecution of Decius, S00287) and the invention of the relics of *Stephen (the First-Martyr, S00030).
E03851Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon on Easter Tuesday in Hippo Regius (North Africa), after the reading of a written account (libellus) of a man healed by the agency of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030). The sermon, which mentions miracles at Uzalis (North Africa) and at Ancona (central Italy), where a stone from the stoning of Stephen is preserved, is interrupted by another miraculous healing. Sermon 323, delivered in Latin, 424/427.
E03868The Church Calendar of Ioane Zosime, compiled in Georgian in the 10th c., based however on 5th-7th c. prototypes from Palestine, commemorates on 17 September *Euphemia (martyr of Chalcedon, S00017) and *Epiphanios (bishop of Salamis, ob. 403, S00215) or *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030).
E03971The Church Calendar of Ioane Zosime, compiled in Georgian in the 10th c., based however on 5th-7th c. prototypes from Palestine, commemorates on 27 December *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030).
E03999Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon on Easter Wednesday, in which he finishes a story about a boy brought back to life at the shrine of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) in Uzalis (North Africa). Sermon 324, delivered in Latin in Hippo Regius (North Africa), 424/427.
E04056Sozomen in his Ecclesiastical History mentions that the Novatian bishop of Constantinople Sisinnios (c. 390-410) dedicated a church to *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030). He had a vision (probably of Stephen) revealing to him the martyrdom of the young reader *Eutropios (S01176), a supporter of John Chrysostom, who died after severe torture in 405. Written in Greek at Constantinople, 439/450.
E04059Sozomen in his Ecclesiastical History recounts the discovery in Palestine of the relics of *Zechariah (Old Testament Prophet S00283) and *Stephen the First Martyr (S00030) under Theodosius II (r. 408-450). Written in Greek at Constantinople, 439/450.
E04144Coptic account from Edfu/Apollonopolis (Upper Egypt) concerning the delivery of measures of vegetables, mentioning institutions dedicated to *Kyriakos (presumably the child martyr of Tarsus, S00007) and Stephen (possibly the First Martyr, S00030) receiving a delivery/donation; datable to the second half of the 7th century.
E04155Greek inscription on the top of a capital, saying that it was ordered by a church of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) 'of Monaeis'. Found at Horvat Ma'on/Khirbet Ma'in in the northwest Negev desert, near Gaza, Beersheva, and Elousa (Roman province of Palaestina III). Probably 5th-6th c.
E04156Fragmentary Greek inscription commemorating the completion of a 'place' (topos) of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), and a 'place' (topos) of *Abraham (probably the Old Testament patriarch, S00275). Found at Beersheva in the Negev desert (Roman province of Palaestina III). Probably 5th-6th c.
E04157Greek inscription with an invocation of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), probably from a church dedicated to the saint. Found at Beersheva in the Negev desert (Roman province of Palaestina III). One of its fragments was displaced and found in Jerusalem, and, therefore, incorrectly ascribed to that city in early editions. Probably 5th-6th c.
E04169Greek inscription on a capital, invoking the help of the God of the martyr *Stephen (certainly the First Martyr, S00030). Found at Shivta (ancient Sobata) in the Negev desert (Roman province of Palaestina III). Probably 6th c.
E04192Eustratius of Constantinople in his tract On the State of Souls after Death, argues that miracles and visions are performed by the souls of the saints personally, responding to those who deny the posthumous activity of the soul and ascribe miracles to divine powers assuming the forms of the saints. He quotes from several hagiographic works. Written in Greek at Constantinople, 583/602.
E04217Coptic document from Hermonthis (Upper Egypt) with a declaration made by a newly ordained deacon addressing bishop Abraham of Hermonthis, mentioning a presbyter of (a church of) Apa *Stephanos (possibly the First Martyr, S00030); datable around 600.
E04280Greek epitaph for two men, father and son, described as life-long devoted servants of an unnamed martyr. Found at Elousa in the Negev desert (Roman province of Palaestina III). Dated 544/545.
E04333Greek inscriptions and graffiti found in the entrance hall at the North Church at Nessana/Auja Hafir in the Negev desert (Roman province of Palaestina III), invoking *Sergios (soldier and martyr of Rusafa, S00023), *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), the God of Stephen and Sergios, and the God of unnamed martyrs. It is possible, but very unlikely, that *Bakchos (soldier and martyr of Barbalissos, S00079) was invoked together with Sergios in one of the texts. Probably 5th-7th c.
E04336Greek inscriptions and graffiti found in the martyr shrine at the North Church at Nessana/Auja Hafir in the Negev desert (Roman province of Palaestina III): the epitaph for a presbyter naming his place of burial a martyr shrine (martyrion); an invocation, probably of the God of *Sergios (soldier and martyr of Rusafa, S00023) and *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030); and two inscriptions/graffiti in cursive script, of uncertain purpose, naming various saints. One of them is dated 464. Others: probably 5th-7th c.
E04342Greek inscriptions/graffiti invoking the help of *Sergios (soldier and martyr of Rusafa, S00023), and *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030). Found in Room 8 at the North Church of Nessana/Auja Hafir in the Negev desert (Roman province of Palaestina III). One of them is dated 586.
E04343Greek inscriptions/graffiti invoking the God of *All Saints, the intercession of *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), *Sergios (soldier and martyr of Rusafa, S00023), *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), probably the *Forty Martyrs (of Sebasteia, S00103, or of the Sinai Desert, S01620), and saints whose names are lost. Found in Room 7 at the North Church at Nessana/Auja Hafir in the Negev desert (Roman province of Palaestina III). Probably 5th-7th c.
E04345Fragmentary Greek inscriptions/graffiti invoking *Sergios (soldier and martyr of Rusafa, S00023), *Bakchos (soldier and martyr of Barbalissos, S00292), the God of the two saints, *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), and saints whose names are lost (possibly *Viktor, martyr of Egypt, S00749; or Viktor, martyr of Maiuma near Gaza, S00292). Scattered over unrecorded locations around the North Church at Nessana/Auja Hafir in the Negev desert (Roman province of Palaestina III). Probably 6th-7th c.
E04352Fragmentary Greek graffiti invoking the God of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), probably *Sergios (soldier and martyr in Rusafa, S00023), and saints whose names are lost. Scattered over unrecorded locations at Nessana/Auja Hafir in the Negev desert (Roman province of Palaestina III). Probably 6th-7th c.
E04431Gregory the Great, in his Dialogues (1.5), describes a miracle effected by *Constantius (S01711), a 6th c. sacristan of the church of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) near Ancona (central Italy), and how his fame attracted people who travelled to see him. Written in Latin in Rome, c. 593.
E04493Evagrius Scholasticus in his Ecclesiastical History reports that the empress Eudocia built a magnificent church for *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) outside the walls of Jerusalem, where she was buried in 460. Written in Greek at Antioch (Syria), 593/594.
E04530Procopius of Caesarea, in his On Buildings, reports that the emperor Justinian (r. 527-565) built or renovated numerous forts in the western Balkans, five of them named after saints. Written in Greek at Constantinople, in the 550s.
E04536Augustine of Hippo, in his Sermon 356, mentions a memorial shrine (memoria) of an unnamed martyr, almost certainly *Stephen (the First Martyr 00030), built and paid for by the local deacon Heraclius; and the basilica of the *Eight Martyrs (of Hippo, S01441), ordered by Augustine, paid for by his congregation and overseen by the priest Leporius. Sermon preached in Latin in Hippo Regius (North Africa), in January 426.
E04537Augustine of Hippo, in his Sermon 375B, refers, for the sake of theological argument, to the martyrs *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) and *Phokas (either Phokas, martyr of Sinope, S00052, or Phokas, martyr of Antioch, S00413). Sermon preached in Latin in Hippo Regius (North Africa), sometime between 397 and 430.
E04551Augustine of Hippo preaches on an occasion connected with a martyr, probably *Stephen (the First Martyr S00030), and mentions a written account (libellus) of his miracles. Sermon 94, delivered in Latin in Hippo Regius (North Africa), possibly c. 425.
E04578The 6th/7th c. recension of the Latin Martyrologium Hieronymianum, as transmitted in 8th c. manuscripts, records the feasts of a number of saints on 2 January.
E04956The Greek Life of *Nikolaos of Sion (abbot and bishop in Lycia, ob. 564, S00559) mentions that the monastery of Holy Sion in Pharroa of Lycia possessed relics of *John (probably the Baptist, S00020), *Stephen the First Martyr (S00030), *Theodoros (martyr of Euchaita, S00480), *Sergios and Bakchos (martyrs of Syria, S00030, S00079), and the *Forty Martyrs of Sebaste (S00103), and describes the place of the relics of *Nikolaos (abbot of Holy Sion and bishop of Pinara, ob. 564) in the same church. Written in the late 6th c., probably at the monastery of Holy Sion in Lycia (south-west Asia Minor).
E05065The 6th/7th c. recension of the Latin Martyrologium Hieronymianum, as transmitted in 8th c. manuscripts, records the feasts of a number of saints on 26 December.
E05071The 6th/7th c. recension of the Latin Martyrologium Hieronymianum, as transmitted in 8th c. manuscripts, records the feasts of a number of saints on 1 January.
E05172Latin Orationale of the Old Hispanic Liturgy of the 7th c. (Orationale Visigothicum), with prayers used on the feasts of saints in December: *Leocadia (virgin and confessor of Toledo, S01367), *Eulalia (virgin and martyr of Mérida, S00407), *Mary, Mother of Christ (S00033), *Stephen, the First Martyr (S00030), *Eugenia (virgin and martyr of Rome, S00401), *John the Apostle and Evangelist (S00042), *Columba (virgin and martyr of Sens, 01862).
E05194Latin inscription with a poem commemorating the construction of the basilica of *Stephen the First Martyr (S00030), the church of S. Stefano on the via Latina, Rome, as the dying wish of Amnia Demetrias, Roman aristocrat and consecrated virgin. The work was entrusted to, and completed by, Pope Leo I, and overseen by the presbyter Tigrinus. 440/461.
E05213Fragmentary Latin epitaph, dated 530/533, partly composed as a poem, partly as prose, recording the burial of a certain Maurianus, of spectabilis rank, in the church of S. Stefano/basilica of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) on the via Latina, Rome, as a 'lawful prize to his merits'. The inscription also probably encourages the reader to praise Stephen as the saint who 'receives us all'.
E05283The Greek Life of *Theodoros (abbot of Sykeon, ob. 613, S01619), by Eleusios-Georgios of Sykeon, mentions several shrines and festivals of saints at Sykeon and other places in Anatolia, the Holy Land, and Constantinople. Written at Sykeon (central Asia Minor), in the 640s.
E05291Eleusios-Georgios of Sykeon composes the Life of *Theodoros (ascetic and abbot of Sykeon, ob. 613, S01619), recounting the life, ascetic feats, and miracles of its hero, and the foundation of the monastic centre of Sykeon in Galatia (central Asia Minor). The text mentions several shrines and festivals of saints in cities and villages of Asia Minor, and also in Constantinople and the Holy Land. Written in Greek at Sykeon, in the 640s. Overview entry
E05292Mosaic on the triumphal arch of the church of S. Lorenzo fuori le mura on the via Tiburtina, Rome, with Christ flanked by the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008), who are in turn flanked by *Laurence/Laurentius (deacon and martyr of Rome, S00037), presenting to Christ Pope Pelagius II holding a model of the basilica, and *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) presenting *Hippolytus (martyr of Rome, S00509). 579/590.
E05360Latin inscription, now lost, with a poem ascribed to Alcuin of York, describing a picture of the martyrdom of *Laurence/Laurentius (deacon and martyr of Rome, S00037) and *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), probably displayed in the Pelagian basilica of Laurence on the ager Veranus, via Tiburtina, Rome. 8th c.
E05403Proclus of Constantinople composes a homily On *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), probably echoing the transfer of his relics to Constantinople under the influence of the empress Pulcheria. Written in Greek at Constantinople, in 415/439.
E05453Proclus of Constantinople composes his Homily 17, On *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), which he preaches during a festival in Constantinople. Written in Greek in the 420s or 430s.
E05492Leo the Great composes a Latin sermon (Sermon 85) in Rome in 446/461 in honour of the feast day of *Laurence (deacon and martyr of Rome, S00037).
E05555Venantius Fortunatus writes eleven books of Poems in Latin, mainly in western and north-western Gaul, 565/600; many of them with reference to saints. Overview entry.
E05564Venantius Fortunatus writes a poem (1.3), On the basilica of the lord *Stephen (the First Martyr (S00030), built by a certain Palladius, perhaps in Saintes (western Gaul). Written in Latin, probably in Gaul, 565/576, but perhaps earlier.
E05622Bede, in his Martyrology, records the feast on 19 September in Naples (southern Italy) of *Ianuarius/ Genuarius (bishop of Benevento and martyr of Naples, S01322); *Sossius (deacon and martyr of Misenum, S00621); *Festus and Desiderius (martyrs of Benevento, S02085); and *Proculus, Eutyches and Acutius (martyrs of Pozzuoli, S02086), of whom the last three were buried near a church dedicated to *Stephen (presumably the first martyr, S00030). Written in Latin at Wearmouth-Jarrow (north-east Britain), 725/731.
E05656Desiderius of Cahors, in a letter to Chlodulf (Letter 1.8), requests his favour towards the cathedral dedicated to *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) in Cahors (south-west Gaul). Written in Latin in Cahors, mid-7th century.
E05667Desiderius of Cahors, in a letter to Abbo, bishop of Metz (Letter 1.9), requests his favour towards the cathedral dedicated to *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) in Cahors (south-west Gaul). Written in Latin in Cahors, mid-7th century.
E05735John Malalas in his Chronographia, in his account of events in Antioch (Syria) in the early 6th century, mentions the local shrines of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), *Michael (the Archangel, S00181), *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), unnamed *Prophets (S00139), *Zachariah (probably the father of John the Baptist, S00597, or the Old Testament Prophet, S00283), and *Kosmas and Damianos (brothers and physician martyrs, S00385), as well as a Gate of *Ioulianos (probably the martyr of Cilicia, S00305). Written in Greek at Antioch or Constantinople, in the mid-6th c.
E05784Agnellus of Ravenna, in his Liber Pontificalis Ecclesiae Ravennatis, written in Latin, refers to the foundation of a church dedicated to *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) in Rimini (northern Italy); Agnellus claims this event took place in the first half of the 5th c. Account written in Ravenna in 830/846.
E05812Agnellus of Ravenna, in his Liber Pontificalis Ecclesiae Ravennatis, quotes 6th c. Latin inscriptions from a church dedicated to *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) in Ravenna (northern Italy); Agnellus claims the church was founded in 546/557. Account written in Ravenna in 830/846.
E05862The Calendar of Willibrord, in its earliest version, records the feasts of various saints in December. Written in Latin at Echternach, Frisia (north-east Gaul), 703/710.
E05891Hesychius of Jerusalem composes his Homily 9, On *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), which he preaches during the celebration of the saint, probably held at the diaconikon of Holy Sion in Jerusalem on 27 December. Written in Greek at Jerusalem, 415/438.
E05994Coptic ostracon from Deir el-Bahari (Upper Egypt) with an funerary inscription, mentioning the monastery of Apa *Stephen (presumably Stephen, the First Martyr, S00030) at the city of Ape (Upper Egpyt); datable to the 7th/8th century.
E06033Fragmentary Latin epitaph for a nun from a monastery of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030); found at the mausoleum of Santa Costanza, cemetery of Sant'Agnese, via Nomentana, Rome. Probably late 6th c. or later.
E06063Gennadius of Marseille, in his De viris illustribus ('On distinguished men'), describes how Lucianus, the discoverer of the relics of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), wrote an account of his discovery, which was translated into Latin by the presbyter Avitus, and circulated in the West by Orosius, who was also the first to bring relics of Stephen to the West. Written in Latin at Marseille (southern Gaul), c. 468.
E06080Adomnán, in his On the Holy Places, reports the recent visit of the Franco-Gallic bishop Arculf to a basilica at Mount Zion, Jerusalem, where one could see the rock on which *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) died. Written in Latin at Iona (north-west Britain), possibly 683/689.
E06095The will of Bertram/Bertrand, bishop of Le Mans (ob. 623), establishes as the bishop's heirs two churches at Le Mans (north-west Gaul), one dedicated to *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), the other to the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008); and makes provisions concerning numerous properties across Gaul, including churches associated with various saints, mostly in or around Le Mans. Written in Latin at Le Mans, 27 March 616.
E06113Greek receipt from Arsinoiton Polis (Fayum) concerning straw, mentioning a church of *Stephen (presumably the First Martyr, S00030) where one of the witnesses is a priest; datable to the 7th century.
E06127Greek list of unknown Egyptian provenance recording donations in meat made for saints' feast days, among them *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), Apa *Viktor (presumably the son of Romanos), and Apa *Phoibammon (presumably the soldier and martyr, S00080); datable to the 5th century.
E06262Jacob of Serugh, in his Homily (memrā) on the Church of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), laments the despoliation of the church dedicated to Stephen in Amida (northern Mesopotamia) and its conversion into a fire temple by the Persians, after the take-over of the city by the troops of Kavadh I in the year 503. Written in Syriac in northern Mesopotamia, c. 503.
E06283The Life of *Caesarius (bishop of Arles, ob. 542, S00491), records in two books the bishop's life, miracles (several through objects that had been in contact with the saint), and death. Several churches and feasts in Arles are mentioned. Written in Latin by five clerics of the ecclesiastical province of Arles (southern Gaul), 542/5.
E06330Gregory the Great in a papal letter (Register 2.6) of 591, to Felix, bishop of Messina, refers to the foundation of a basilica dedicated to *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), *Pancratius (bishop and martyr of Taormina, S00307) and *Euplus (martyr of Catania, S00207), in Messina (Sicily), and to the provision of contact relics (sanctuaria) for it. Written in Latin in Rome.
E06369Gregory the Great in a papal letter (Register 6.45) of 596, to Leontius, bishop of Rimini, instructs him to dedicate a restored church of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) in Rimini (northern Italy), and to place contact relics (sanctuaria) of the saint within it. Written in Latin in Rome.
E06379Gregory the Great in a papal letter (Register 8.17) of 598, to Marinianus, bishop of Ravenna, seeks to regulate the affairs of a monastery dedicated to *John (probably the Baptist, S00020) and *Stephen (the first martyr, S00030) in Classe (the port of Ravenna, northern Italy). Written in Latin in Rome.
E06381Gregory the Great in a papal letter (Register 8.23) of 598, to the defensor Fantinus, mentions a monastery dedicated to *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) in Agrigento (Sicily). Written in Latin in Rome.
E06443Gregory the Great in a papal letter (Register 14.14) of 604, to Felix, sub-deacon and governor of the Appian patrimony, details lands which will be used to support the lighting of the church of *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), San Paolo fuori le mura; in detailing the locations of these lands, monasteries of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) and 'of saint *Aristus' (possibly Hedistus, martyr of Laurentum, S01229), both close to San Paolo, are mentioned. Written in Latin in Rome.
E06468In 555/557, Cyril of Scythopolis composes the Life of *Euthymios (monastic founder in Palestine, οb. 472, S01352), recounting his life as a miracle working ascetic, adding a set of posthumous miracle stories, and including references to the cult of several other saints. Written in Greek at the New Laura in Palestine. Overview entry
E06592The Latin Gelasian Sacramentary (or Liber Sacramentorum Romanae Ecclesiae), probably compiled around 750 near Paris using earlier material from Rome, records prayers to saints on their feast days in December.
E06677Cyril of Scythopolis composes the Life of *Sabas (‘the Sanctified’, monastic founder in Palestine, ob. 532, S00910), recounting his life as a miracle working ascetic and founder of numerous monasteries, adding a set of posthumous miracle stories, and including references to cults of several other saints. Written in Greek at the New Laura in Palestine, 555/557. Overview entry
E06798The Greek Martyrdom of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030). Skeleton entry
E06850Hymn in honour of *Stephen the First Martyr (S00030) composed in Latin in Spain possibly in the 7th century.
E06887A list of subscriptions, preserved in a letter sent to Pope Agapetus I from eastern clerics protesting the appointment of Anthimus as the patriarch of Constantinople, documents foundations dedicated to saints in various places, including Syria. Written in Latin in Constantinople in 535/536.
E06932The will of Caesarius, bishop of Arles, makes provisions for ecclesiastical foundations dedicated to *John (the Baptist, S00020), *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), and *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033) at Arles (southern Gaul). Written in Latin at Arles, 512/42.
E06933The Book of the Angel outlines the privileges of the church at Armagh (north-east Ireland) associated with *Patrick (missionary and bishop of Ireland, 5th c., S01962), based in part on the honour due to (its relics of) *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), and *Laurence (deacon and martyr of Rome, S00037), as well as a relic of the blood of Christ. An addendum delineates the relationship between the churches in Ireland of Patrick and those of *Brigit (abbess of Kildare, ob. c. 525, S01885). Written in Latin at Armagh, perhaps as early as c. 640/60.
E06980The Greek Life of *Isaakios (late 4th c. abbot in Constantinople, ob. 383, S02118) recounts the struggles of the anchorite Isaakios who attempted to convert the emperor Valens to orthodoxy, and founded the first monastery of Constantinople under Theodosius I. He died on 26 May 383, and his body was buried by the altar of the shrine (martyrion) of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) in Isaakios’ monastery. Written in Constantinople in the late 5th century, or later.
E06989The De Locis Sanctis, a guide to the graves of the martyrs around Rome, lists those on the via Ostiensis, south-west of the city. Written in Latin in Rome, 642/683.
E06993The De Locis Sanctis, a guide to the graves of the martyrs around Rome, lists those on the via Latina, south-east of the city. Written in Latin in Rome, 642/683.
E07001The De Locis Sanctis, a guide to the martyrs' burials around Rome, is followed by an Appendix listing 21 churches dedicated to saints within the Aurelianic walls of Rome. Written in Latin in Rome, certainly after 625 and before 790, possibly in 642/683.
E07048Coptic fragments from the Martyrdom of *Stephen (the First martyr, S00030) of unknown Egyptian provenance and date. Skeleton entry
E07132Coptic fragment of a Homily on *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) from the White Monastery near Sohag (Upper Egypt), seemingly referring to a healing miracle taking place at the holy topos of the saint. Skeleton entry
E07165Latin poem by Pope Damasus, for an inscription commemorating *Tarsicius (deacon and martyr of Rome, companion martyr of Pope Stephen, S00205) at his tomb in the cemetery of Callixtus, on the via Appia outside Rome. Written in Rome 366/384.
E07176Antonios of Choziba writes in Greek a short collection of Miracles of *Mary (mother of Christ, S00033) at the Monastery of Choziba, including a reference to the healing miracles that occur at the tomb of the first five holy monks of the monastery, *Promos, Elias, Gannaios, Aian, and Zenon (monks of Choziba, S02757). The tomb also produced a miraculous flow of healing oil. Written at the monastery of Choziba (Palestine), between 614 and 628.
E07483Latin inscription commemorating *Maxima, Donatilla, Secunda (virgins and martyrs of Thuburbo, 01812), and probably *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030). Testour (Africa Proconsularis, north Africa), 6th/7th c.
E07509Fragmentary Latin inscription in honour of *Stephen the First Martyr (S00030). Thabbora (Africa Proconsularis, north Africa), 5th/7th c.
E07570Caesarius, bishop of Arles, in his Sermons 219 and 220, celebrates the feast of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00020). Written in Latin at Arles (southern Gaul), 503/542.
E07606Avitus, priest from Braga (north-west Spain) sojourning in Jerusalem, translates into Latin ('Recension A') the account in Greek (now lost), by Lucianus of Caphargamala, of the discovery at Caphargamala (near Jerusalem) of the relics of *Stephen (the First martyr, S00030) and his three companions, *Gamaliel (Jewish lawyer and teacher of Paul, E02454) and his son Abibas, and *Nicodemus (the Pharisee S01788). Written in Palestine, in 416. Full text, and full English translation.
E07844Venantius Fortunatus, in a poetic epitaph for a young woman named Vilithuta (Poem 4.26), depicts patriarchs, apostles, and celebrated virginal saints taking part in the judgement of sinners after death, mentioning *Elijah (Old Testament prophet, S00217), *Enoch (Old Testament Patriarch, S00762), *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), *Mary (the Mother of Christ, S00033), *Agnes (virgin and martyr of Rome, S00097), *Thekla (follower of the Apostle Paul, S00092), and *Agatha (virgin and martyr of Catania, S00794). Written in Latin in Gaul, 565/576.
E07864Anonymous Latin translation ('Recension B') of the account in Greek (now lost), by Lucianus of Caphargamala, of the discovery at Caphargamala (near Jerusalem) of the relics of *Stephen (the First martyr, S00030) and his three companions, *Gamaliel (Jewish lawyer and teacher of Paul, E02454) and his son Abibas, and *Nicodemus (the Pharisee S01788), written, probably not long after the discovery of the relics in late 415, and perhaps in Jerusalem. Full text, and full English translation
E07897The Itinerarium Malmesburiense, a guide to saints' graves around and within Rome, lists those buried inside the city. Written in Latin in Rome, 642/683.
E07921Theodosius, in his On the Topography of the Holy Land, in his list of holy sites at Jerusalem, notes the church of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) built by the empress Eudocia at the place where he was stoned. Written in Latin, perhaps in Africa, 518/540.
E07942The Breviarius, a brief guide to the holy places of Jerusalem, which survives in two distinct versions,mentions a number of buildings and relics associated with saints and Old Testament figures. Written in Latin, presumably in Jerusalem, perhaps (in its two surviving states) around AD 500.
E07985The Paschal Chronicle records that in 612 Epiphania Eudocia, the daughter of the emperor Heraclius, was crowned in an oratory of *Stephen (the first martyr, S00030) in the palace at Constantinople. Written in Greek at Constantinople, c. 630.
E08009The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor describes how in 427/8 the right hand of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) was brought to Constantinople, and how the emperor's sister Pulcheria had a vision of Stephen, and founded a church dedicated to him. Chronicle compiled in the Byzantine Empire in the early 9th c., using extracts from earlier Greek texts.
E08040The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor states that the emperor Heraclius was crowned in the chapel of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) in the palace at Constantinople in 610. Chronicle compiled in the Byzantine Empire in the early 9th c., using extracts from earlier Greek texts.
E08041The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor states that Epiphaneia, the daughter of Heraclius, was crowned in the chapel of *Stephen (the first martyr, S00030) at the palace in Constantinople in 612. Chronicle compiled in the Byzantine Empire in the early 9th c., using extracts from earlier Greek texts.