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The Cult of Saints in Late Antiquity


from its origins to circa AD 700, across the entire Christian world


Name

Paul, the Apostle

Saint ID

S00008

Number in BH

BHG 1451-1465, BHL 6569-6583

Reported Death Not Before

64

Reported Death Not After

68

Gender
Male
Type of Saint
Twelve Apostles and Paul, Martyrs, Miracle-workers in lifetime, Converts
Related Evidence Records
IDTitle
E00010Mosaic inscription in Greek with dedication by Bishop Porphyrios of a floor mosaic in the 'Basilica of *Paul' (presumably the Apostle, S00008) at Philippi (south Balkans/Greece). Probably mid 4th-century.
E00013Ecclesiastical complex of mid-4th to early 7th c. dedicated to *Paul (presumably the Apostle, S00008) in the centre of Philippi (south Balkans/Greece). It engulfs a pre-existing tomb shrine; excavations revealed cult buildings and evidence for veneration of relics.
E00029Theophylact Simocatta in his History mentions that the emperor Maurice built a church of *Paul (the Apostle, S00008) at the saint's native city of Tarsus (Cilicia, southern Asia Minor). Written in Greek at Constantinople in the early 7th century.
E00044The Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome in the 530s, and re-edited before 546, in its account of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), tells how he was crucified on the Vatican Hill outside Rome on 29 June and buried close by.
E00099Optatus, bishop of Milevis (central North Africa), in his polemical treatise Against Parmenianus, calls Rome the see of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036) and doubts if Macrobius, a Donatist bishop of Rome, probably his contemporary, ever had any association with the memoriae (most probably graves) of the Apostles Peter and *Paul (S00008) in Rome or even approached them. Written in Latin, probably in Milevis, 364/c. 384.
E00118Eusebius of Caesarea, in his Ecclesiastical History (2.25.5-7), quotes a letter from Gaius of Rome (late 2nd c.) to the Montanist leader Proklos, which mentions the tombs in Rome of the Apostles *Peter (00036) in the Vatican and *Paul (S00008) on the Via Ostiensis. Quoted in Greek in Palestine in 311/325.
E00164Greek Calendar of Church Services to be performed at different churches in Oxyrhynchus (Middle Egypt) from the end of October to the end of March of the years 535–536, providing information on the names of many churches, and on the saints’ days celebrated in the city.
E00257Sulpicius Severus, in his Dialogues (2.13) on *Martin (ascetic and bishop of Tours, ob. 397, S00050), recounts how Martin often conversed with a number of major saints in heaven: *Thekla (follower of the Apostle Paul, S00092), *Agnes (virgin and martyr of Rome, S00097), *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), and the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008), and also how he knew demons by name. Written in Latin in Primuliacum (south-west Gaul), c. 404-406.
E00281Eusebius of Caesarea, in his Ecclesiastical History (7.18), reports that, in his day, a statue of Jesus curing the Bleeding Woman existed in Caesarea Philippi, and miraculous cures were obtained from a plant growing on it. He also claims that pagans venerated painted images of Jesus and the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008) as protectors. Written in Greek in Palestine, 311/325.
E00345The Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome in the 530s, and re-edited before 546, in its account of *Cornelius (bishop and martyr of Rome, S00172), tells how, at the request of a certain Lucina, he removed at night the bodies of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008) from the 'Catacumbas' cemetery on the via Appia outside Rome; how Lucina reburied Paul on her estate on the via Ostiensis, near where he had been beheaded; and how Cornelius reburied Peter on the Vatican hill, near where he had been crucified, amongst the bodies of the holy bishops of Rome, on 29 June [AD 251/253].
E00367Gregory of Tours writes the Glory of the Martyrs (Liber in Gloria Martyrum), in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 580/594. Overview entry.
E00402The Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome in the 530s, and re-edited before 546, recounts the founding and endowment of the basilica of *Paul (the Apostle, S00008) outside Rome by the emperor Constantine (312-337).
E00406The Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome in the 530s, and re-edited before 546, recounts the founding and endowment of a basilica of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), and *John the Baptist (S00020) in Ostia, close to Rome, by the emperor Constantine (312-337).
E00493Gregory of Tours, in his Glory of the Martyrs (27), tells of the imprints of the knees of Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008) in Rome; water collected in these has healing power. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 580/594.
E00495Gregory of Tours, in his Glory of the Martyrs (28), describes milk and water flowing from the dead body of *Paul (the Apostle, S00008) after his beheading, and recounts how his protection prevented a man from suicide. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 580/594.
E00499Gregory of Tours, in his Glory of the Martyrs (29), records the following things in Ephesus (western Asia Minor): the tomb of *Mary Magdalene (female follower of Jesus, S00286); the relics of the *Seven Sleepers (brothers who fell asleep during the persecution of Decius, S00287); and the image of Diana destroyed by *Paul (the Apostle, S00008). Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 580/594.
E00529The Piacenza Pilgrim records his visit to a monastery close to Damascus (Phoenicia), built at the site of the conversion of *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), and to the 'street called straight', renowned for its miracles, in Damascus itself. Account of an anonymous pilgrim, written in Latin, probably in Placentia (northern Italy), c. 570.
E00551Greek epigram, probably from a dedicatory inscription in the church, recording the dedication of a church to the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008) by Justinian (later to become emperor) in the quarter of Hormisdas in Constantinople, c. 519. Recorded in the 10th c. Greek Anthology.
E00615Letter of 519, from papal legates in Constantinople to Pope Hormisdas in Rome (Collectio Avellana 218), reporting that Justinian (the future emperor; nephew of the emperor Justin I) sought relics of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00008 and S00037), and of *Laurence (deacon and martyr of Rome, S00037) for his basilica of Peter and Paul in Constantinople. Having been told the request was against the custom of Rome, he now requests contact relics (sanctuaria) of Peter and Paul, and pieces from their chains and from the grate on which Laurence was martyred. Written in Latin.
E00616Letter of 519 from Justinian (the future emperor; nephew of the emperor Justin I) to Pope Hormisdas (Collectio Avellana 187), requesting relics of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008) from Rome, for his basilica of the same saints in Constantinople. He donates two silk cloths for their altar in Rome. Written in Latin in Constantinople.
E00617Letter of 519 from Pope Hormisdas to Justinian (the future emperor; nephew of the emperor Justin I), accompanying contact relics (sanctuaria) of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008), sent in response to the latter's request for relics for his church in Constantinople dedicated to Peter and Paul. Collectio Avellana 190, written in Latin in Rome.
E00626Gregory of Tours, in his Glory of the Martyrs (82), tells of a miracle through relics obtained in Rome by his deacon: the ship carrying the deacon to Marseille was saved from shipwreck when he lifted up the relics and invoked their saints by name; Gregory lists the relics as of unnamed *Apostles (S00084), *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), *Laurence (deacon and martyr of Rome, S00037), *Chrysanthus and Daria (chaste couple and martyrs of Rome, S00306), and *Iohannes and Paulus (brothers and eunuchs, martyrs of Rome under the emperor Julian, S00384). Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 580/594.
E00682The Notitia ecclesiarum urbis Romae, a guide to saints' graves around Rome, lists those under the church of San Sebastiano, on the via Appia, south of the city. Written in Latin in Rome, 625/649.
E00687The Notitia ecclesiarum urbis Romae, a guide to saints' graves around Rome, lists those on the via Ostiensis, south-west of the city. Written in Latin in Rome, 625/649.
E00720Inscription with prayer in Greek, from a church in Kasossos near Mylasa (Caria, western Asia Minor). Refers to saints and other holy figures: *Abraham (Old Testament patriarch, S00275), *Jacob (Old Testament patriarch, S00280), *Moses (Old Testament prophet and lawgiver, S00241), *Elijah (Old Testament prophet, S00217), *Elisha (Old Testament prophet, S00239), the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008), other unnamed Apostles (S00084), unnamed Confessors (S00184), *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), and a virgin *Eirene (possibly the martyr of Magedon, S02162). Probably late antique (6th/8th c.) or later.
E00739Cave (so-called 'Grotto of Paul') at Ephesos (on the slope of Bülbüldağ, western Asia Minor), with painting, perhaps of the 5th c., showing *Paul (the Apostle, S00008) and *Thekla (the follower of Paul, S00092), and with undated graffiti invoking Paul (and other saints). Shrine continually in use, probably from the 5th c.
E00747Bishop Nicetius of Trier, in a letter to Chlodosinda, queen of the Lombards (Austrasian Letter 8), claims that relics and churches dedicated to the saints are ineffective for Arians; he mentions Gothic veneration for the *Apostles (S02422), and alludes to churches or shrines of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), and *John (probably the Baptist, S00020), all probably at Rome. Written in Latin, presumably at Trier (eastern Gaul), 561/569.
E00865Multiple fragments of a Greek dedicatory inscription, probably commemorating the consecration of a church of the Apostles: *Peter (S00036), possibly *Paul (S00008), *Andrew (S00288), probably *Philip (S00109), probably *Thomas (S00199), *John (S00042); others are perhaps also named. Found at Side (Pamphylia, southern Asia Minor). Probably mid-6th c.
E00975Quodvultdeus of Carthage, in his Book of Promises, names several tombs of apostles and saints which guarantee the truthfulness of the doctrine of the Church: in Jerusalem, of *James (probably the 'brother of the Lord', S00058) and *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030); at Ephesus, *John (the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042); in Asia, *Andrew (the Apostle, S00288); in Rome, the Apostles0 *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and *Paul S00008). Written in Latin,probably during Quodvultdeus' exile in Italy, 440/454.
E00986Greek epitaph for a woman, 'servant' of a Saint Paulos, probably *Paul the Apostle (S00008). Found at Satala (Roman province of Armenia I, eastern Asia Minor). Probably 6th c.
E01033Augustine of Hippo, in his treatise Against Faustus, argues that the superiority of virginity over marriage is proven by the fact that it was preached by *Paul (the Apostle, S00008) and chosen as her way of life by *Thekla (follower of Paul, S00092). Written in Latin in Hippo Regius (central North Africa), c. 400.
E01034Augustine of Hippo, in his treatise Against Faustus, explains that the Christians venerate martyrs, such as the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008), and *Cyprian (bishop and martyr of Carthage, S00411) as examples to imitate, but worship only God, even if they do it in places in which martyrs are commemorated. Written in Latin in Hippo (central North Africa), c. 400.
E01041Augustine of Hippo, in his City of God (1.1), states that during the sack of Rome in 410, Christians and pagans alike successfully sought asylum at the shrines of the apostles, not named, but evidently *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008), and of the martyrs. Written in Latin in Hippo Regius (central North Africa), 412/413.
E01052The Depositio Martirum, a list of burials of martyrs (primarily of Rome), gives both the day of the year and the place of their burial; from the so-called Chronography of 354, compiled in Latin in Rome, c. 354.
E01085Silver casket, probably re-used as a reliquary, decorated with depictions of *Konon (one of the several homonymous martyrs of Anatolia), *Theκla (follower of the Apostle Paul, S00092), Christ flanked by the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008), and with Greek invocations, apparently of Konon, asked for health. Found at Çirga near Mut (Isauria, southern Asia Minor). Very probably late 5th c.
E01132Greek epitaph for a deacon of a sanctuary of unnamed *Apostles, probably the apostoleion of *Peter (S00038) and *Paul (S00008) at the estate of Rufinianae. Found near Chalkedon/Chalcedon (Bithynia, north-west Asia Minor), probably 5th-6th c.
E01133The Greek Life of Hypatios by Kallinikos reports that in c. 393 Rufinus, pretorian prefect of the East, acquired some relics of the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008) from Rome, and deposited them in the so-called apostoleion at his estate of Rufinianae near Chalkedon/Chalcedon (Bithynia, north-west Asia Minor). Rufinus was also buried there. Written in Constantinople shortly after 450.
E01206Fragment of an altar with a partially preserved Greek inscription, mentioning *Paul the Apostle (S00008), possibly patron of the church. Found at Pythagorio (Samos, the Aegean Islands). Probably mid-6th c.
E01244The Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome in the 530s, and re-edited before 546, is critical of *Liberius (bishop of Rome, ob. 366, S00758), but mentions his burial in the cemetery of Priscilla on the via Salaria, on 9 September [AD 366], and his links with the churches of the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008), and, particularly that of *Agnes (virgin and martyr of Rome, S00097), which he beautified, all in Rome.
E01246Martyr shrine of *Akakios (perhaps the soldier and martyr of Byzantion, S00759), with an inscription labelling the apparent burial chamber of the martyr, and possible burials ad sanctos, i.e. close to the martyr's relics; part of the late antique basilica on the agora of Thasos/modern Limenas (island of Thasos, Aegean Islands), just possibly dedicated to *Paul the Apostle (S00008). Dated by the excavator to the late 4th/first half of the 5th c.
E01273The Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome in the 530s, and re-edited before 546, in its account of *Damasus (bishop of Rome, ob. 384, S00535), lists his construction of a basilica of *Laurence (martyr in Rome, S00037) inside the city of Rome; the dedication of a marble tablet at the Catacumbas cemetery on the via Appia, commemorating the former resting place of the bodies of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008); the discovery and honouring in verse of many martyrs; and his burial, with his mother and sister, in his own basilica on the via Ardeatina, on 11 December [AD 384].
E01289The Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome in the 530s, and re-edited before 546, in its account of *Caelestinus (bishop of Rome, ob. 432, S00528), tells of his gifts to the basilicas of the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008) at Rome, and of his burial in the cemetery of Priscilla on the via Salaria outside the city, on 6 April [AD 432].
E01295The Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome in the 530s, and re-edited before 546, in its account of *Xystus III (bishop of Rome, ob. 440, S00764) describes the construction and decoration of several churches in Rome during his episcopate (432-440): the basilica of *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), present-day Santa Maria Maggiore, the confessiones of the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008), and a basilica and confessio of *Laurence (deacon and martyr of Rome, S00037).
E01305The Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome in the 530s, and re-edited before 546, in its account of *Leo (bishop of Rome, ob. 461, S00423), tells how a certain Demetrias built a basilica of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) on the via Latina outside Rome; how Leo himself established a monastery at St Peter's, built a basilica to *Cornelius (bishop and martyr of Rome, S00172) near the cemetery of Callixtus on the via Appia, carried out a number of repairs at the basilicas of the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008) and at the Lateran, and replaced the liturgical vessels of the city's tituli, which had been stolen by the Vandals. It also gives an account of the Council held in the basilica of *Euphemia (martyr of Chalcedon, S00017) at Chalcedon, near Constantinople, and records *Leo's burial in Rome at the basilica of St Peter on 11 April [AD 461].
E01307The Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome in the 530s, and re-edited before 546, in its account of *Hilarus (bishop of Rome, ob. 468, S00566) names his refurbishments in, and offerings to, several churches and oratories in Rome: dedicated to *John (Apostle and Evangelist, S00042), *John the Baptist (S00020), the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008), *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), *Laurence (deacon and martyr of Rome, S00037), and *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030).
E01313The Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome in the 530s, and re-edited before 546, in its account of *Simplicius (bishop of Rome, ob. 483, S00729) tells how he dedicated churches in and around Rome to *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), *Andrew (the Apostle, S00288), and *Bibiana (martyr of Rome under the emperor Julian, S00728); made arrangements concerning clergy in the churches of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), and *Laurence (deacon and martyr of Rome, S00037); and made gifts to St Peter's basilica; it closes with a record of his burial in St Peter's basilica on 2 March [AD 483].
E01315The Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome in the 530s, and re-edited before 546, in its account of *Felix III (bishop of Rome, ob. 492, S00785), recounts his building of a basilica of *Agapitus (deacon and martyr of Rome, S00203), near the church of saint Laurence on the via Tiburtina outside Rome, and his burial at the basilica of *Paul (the Apostle, S00008) [AD 492].
E01323Greek inscription with the name Paulos, believed to have been on the lintel of a monastic church or chapel dedicated to *Paul the Apostle (S00008). Found near Salamis/Constantia (Cyprus). Probably late antique.
E01338The church of Panagia Kanakaria at Lythrankomi (north-eastern Cyprus) houses a mosaic with depictions of Christ, *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), unnamed *Archangels (almost certainly *Michael, S00181, and *Gabriel, S00192), and with labelled depictions of *Apostles and *Evangelists. Probably 525-550.
E01350The second edition of the Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome between the 530s and 546, in its account of *Symmachus (bishop and confessor of Rome, ob. 514, S00793), lists his building works at, and donations to, the churches of various saints in Rome and its region.
E01354The second edition of the Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome between the 530s and 546, in its account of *Hormisdas (bishop of Rome, ob. 523, S00799), lists offerings to the basilica of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036) by kings Clovis and Theodoric, and the emperor Justin; and Hormisdas' own gifts to the Lateran basilica and the basilicas of Peter and of *Paul (the Apostle, S00008).
E01357The second edition of the Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome between the 530s and 546, in its account of *John I (bishop of Rome, ob. 526, S00308), lists his renovation works in the cemeteries of *Nereus and Achilles (eunuchs and martyrs of Rome, S00403), of *Felix and Adauctus (martyrs of Rome, S00421), and of Priscilla, all in the suburbs of Rome; his adornment of the confessio of *Paul (the Apostle, S00008); as well as offerings made by the emperor Justin I to the churches in Rome of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), of *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), of *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), and of *Laurence (deacon and martyr of Rome, S00037).
E01372The short Life of Vigilius, bishop of Rome 537-555, in the Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome, probably during the 6th c., mentions several churches and other places dedicated to saints, namely the basilica of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), the church of *Caecilia (virgin and martyr of Rome, S00146), the city-gate of *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), and the grave of *Marcellus (bishop and martyr of Rome, S00529), all in or around Rome, as well as a church of *Euphemia (martyr of Chalcedon, S00017) in Constantinople.
E01398The early 5th c. Syriac Martyrology commemorates on 28 December the martyrdom of *Paul (the Apostle, S00008) and *Peter (the Apostle, S00036).
E01419The short Life of *Gregory I ('the Great, bishop of Rome, ob. 604, S00838) in the Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome, probably early in the 7th c., mentions his enhancement of the tombs of the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008), so that mass could be celebrated directly over their bodies; his dedication of the church of *Agatha, (virgin and martyr of Catania, S00794); and his burial at St Peter's, perhaps on 12 March; all in Rome.
E01629The short Life of *Theodorus (bishop of Rome, ob. 649, S00856) in the Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome soon after his death, records his transfer of the bodies of *Primus and Felicianus (martyrs of Rome, S00855) from the via Nomentana outside Rome to the intramural church of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), and his gifts there; the building of a church of *Valentinus (priest and martyr of Rome, S00433) on the via Flaminia to the north of Rome; and oratories dedicated to *Sebastianus (martyr of Rome, S00400) at the Lateran, and *Euplus (martyr of Catania, S00207) outside the gate of St *Paul (the Apostle, S00008). It also refers to the church of *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033) 'at the Crib' [= S. Maria Maggiore], and to Theodorus' burial at St. *Peter's (the Apostle, S00036) on 14 May.
E01643The short Life of *Vitalianus, bishop of Rome (ob. 672, 00682) in the Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome soon after his death, describes the visit to Rome in 663 of the emperor Constans II: he visited the churches of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), and *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), making gifts at each, and processing with his army on a Sunday to St Peter's; also mentioned are Constans' removal to Constantinople of the bronze tiles of the church of St Mary 'ad Martyres' (the Pantheon), and Vitalianus' burial at St Peter's on 27 January.
E01656The short Life of *Donus (bishop of Rome, ob. 678, 00869) in the Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome, soon after his death, lists his work in suburban churches of Rome: paving of the atrium of the basilica of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036); restoration of a church of the Apostles, probably Peter and *Paul (S00008), on the via Ostiensis; the dedication of a church of *Euphemia (martyr of Chalcedon, S00017) on the via Appia; as well as Donus' burial at St Peter's on 11 April.
E01664The short Life of *Agatho (bishop of Rome, ob. 681, 00872) in the Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome soon after his death, mentions his offerings at the churches of the Apostles, presumably the basilcas of *Peter (S00036) and of *Paul (S00008), and at the church of *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033) 'at the Crib', and his burial at St Peter's on 10 January.
E01678The short Life of *Leo II (bishop of Rome, ob. 683, S00875) in the Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome soon after his death, records his building of a church of *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), close to the church of *Bibiana (martyr of Rome under the emperor Julian, S00728); his translation there of the bodies of the martyrs *Simplicius, Faustinus, and Beatrix (martyrs of Rome, S00886); and his burial at the church of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036) on 3 July. Some manuscripts also attribute to Leo II the building of the church of *Sebastianus (martyr of Rome, S00400) and *George (soldier and martyr, S00259) at the Velabro.
E01685Greek dedicatory inscriptions to *Sergios (soldier and martyr of Rusafa, S00023), and busts of: *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), and the Apostles *Peter (S00036), and *Paul (S00008), engraved on the paten and a chalice from the silver treasure of the Cleveland Museum of Art (Ohio). Provenance: a village of 'Beth Misôna' in Syria. Probably 6th c.
E01749Gregory of Nyssa in his Encomion On *Theodoros (soldier and martyr of Amaseia and Euchaita, S00480), of the 380s, invokes the protection of the saint for the local community against a barbarian invasion. He thanks him for repelling a past attack and urges him to invite other saints to his supplication on behalf of the area, especially the Apostles *Peter (S00036), *Paul (S00008), and *John (S00042). Written in Greek in Pontus (northern Asia Minor).
E01808Gregory of Nyssa in the 380s composes his Encomium on *Basil (bishop of Caesarea, ob. 379, S00780), which he delivers during the saint’s festival on 1 January. Basil’s memory is added to a series of major feasts, namely Christmas, *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), and the Apostles *Peter (S00036), *James (S00108),*John (S00042), and *Paul (S00008). The author argues that Basil deserves to be honoured after these figures. He mentions miracles during Basil’s life. Written in Greek in Cappadocia (central Asia Minor).
E01816Greek inscription on a lintel, invoking the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008), probably to protect a house. Found at Rouweiha between Antioch-on-the-Orontes and Apamea on the Orontes. Probably the 5th-6th c.
E01831Gregory of Nyssa in his Second Encomium on *Stephen the First Martyr (S00030), written in 386, refers to the feasts of Stephen, and of the Apostles *Peter (S00036), *James (S00108), and *John (S00042), probably celebrated on 26 and 27 December. Composed in Greek in Cappadocia (central Asia Minor).
E01873Greek inscription on a lintel, with the names of the Apostles *Paul (S00008) and *Peter (S00036). Found at Ḥarāke, near Apamea on the Orontes (central Syria). Probably late antique.
E01895Greek building inscription for a tower (pyrgos), probably recorded as built through the intercession of *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), unnamed *Archangels, and unnamed *Apostles. Found at eṭ-Ṭayyibe near Apamea on the Orontes and Ḥamāh/Amathe (central Syria). Probably 5th-7th c.
E01904Gregory of Nazianzus in his Oration 4 (Against Julian I), of 362/363, refers to the deaths of martyrs, naming the Apostles *John (S00042), *Peter (S00036), *Paul (S00008), and *James (S00108), *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), *Luke (the Evangelist, S00442), *Andrew (the Apostle, S00288), and *Thekla (follower of the Apostle Paul, S00092). He refers to the festivals held in their honour and the miracles performed by their bodily remains. Written in Greek at Nazianzus (central Asia Minor).
E01924Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon in Carthage (central North Africa), at the altar of *Cyprian (bishop and martyr of Carthage, S00411); he mentions the joint feast of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036, and S00008). Sermon 8, delivered in Latin, possibly in 411.
E01960Asterius of Amasea, in his Homily VIII, On the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008), delivered during a service celebrated on their feast, refers to the superiority of Peter over the Apostles *John (S00042), *James (son of Zebedee, S00108) and *Philip (S00109). Written in Greek in Amaseia/Amasea (northern Asia Minor), in the late 4th or early 5th c..
E02011Gregory of Tours, in his Histories (1.25), mentions several 1st, 2nd, and 3rd century martyrs, namely *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), *James ('the brother of the Lord', S00058), *Mark (the Evangelist, S00293), *Stephen (the first martyr, S00030), *Clemens (bishop of Rome, martyr of the Crimea, S00111), *Symeon (bishop and martyr of Jerusalem, S01139), *Ignatios, (bishop of Antioch and martyr of Rome, S00649), *Iustinus (philosopher and martyr of Rome, S01140), *Polycarp (bishop and martyr of Smyrna, S00004), *Cornelius (bishop and martyr of Rome, S00172), and *Cyprian (bishop and martyr of Carthage, S00411). Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 575/594.
E02021Gregory of Tours, in his Histories (2.6), Gregory of Tours describes the miraculous survival of an oratory in Metz (eastern Gaul) with relics of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), when the city was burnt by the Huns in 451. In a vision, Stephen is seen seeking the help of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008), to save the whole city, or at least his oratory. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 575/594.
E02022Gregory of Tours, in his Histories (2.7), recounts a story, set in the mid 5th c., of a man seeing a vision in the church in Rome of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), in which two men, almost certainly Peter and his companion the Apostle *Paul (S00008), promise to protect the general Aetius in response to his wife's prayers. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 575/594.
E02023Gregory of Tours, in his Histories (2.14), records how Perpetuus, bishop of Tours (c. 458-489), built a large new church over the tomb of *Martin (ascetic and bishop of Tours, ob. 397, 00050), because of the success of his cult; and used part of the old chapel for a new church of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008). Gregory stresses the importance of 4 July as a threefold feast: the day of Martin's ordination as bishop of Tours, of the dedication of the new church, and of the translation into it of the saint's body; 11 November is the feast of Martin's death. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 575/594.
E02033The Latin Martyrdom of *Nereus, Achilleus and Companions (martyrs of Rome and central Italy, S00403) is written, presumably in Rome, in Late Antiquity. It narrates the decision of the niece of the emperor Domitian, Domitilla to embrace virginity, her exile to the insula Pontiana with her eunuch slaves Nereus and Achilleus; the struggle of the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008) with Simon Magus; the martyrdom and burial of a number of saints: Felicula, Nicomedes, and Nereus and Achilleus in Rome; Eutyches, Victorinus and Maro on the via Nomentana and via Salaria north-east of Rome; Sulpitius and Servilianus on the via Latina, south-east of the city; Domitilla, with her companions, Euphrosyna and Theodora, in Terracina.
E02053Floor-mosaic with a Greek inscription commemorating the completion and paving of a church (naos) dedicated to *Paul (the Apostle, S00008). Found at Riḥāb, between Bostra and Gerasa/Jerash (Jordan/the Roman province of Arabia). Dated 596.
E02100Orosius, in his Seven Books of History against the Pagans (7.39), recounts that during the sack of Rome in 410 the Goths respected the sanctuary of the basilicas of the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008), and transferred sacred vessels for safe keeping to the basilica of Peter. Written in Latin, possibly in North Africa, c. 416/418.
E02169Greek list of Erica wood purchases from Buto in the area of Memphis (Middle Egypt), mentioning a monastery of *Serenos/Sirenos (possibly a martyr of Oxyrhynchos, S00134), presumably a church of Apa *Apollo (possibly the founder of the monastery at Bawit, S00160), and of of *Paul (possibly the Apostle, S00008), datable to the 7th century.
E02179Gregory of Tours, in his Histories (6.6), describes miracles effected by *Hospicius (ascetic and recluse near Nice, ob. 581, S01178). In c. 574, foretells the coming of Lombard invaders to Nice (southern Gaul), warns its residents, then faces down the soldiers. He cures several people: a deaf and dumb man from Angers (in north-west Gaul), who was travelling to Rome to seek a cure from the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008) and from *Laurence (deacon and martyr of Rome, S00037) and the other martyrs of the city; a blind man called Dominicus; two women possessed by demons. Hospicius predicts his own death. Gregory has heard that Hospicius' Life had been written by many authors. The man from Angers, whom Gregory met and talked with, was travelling to Rome with a deacon who planned to collect relics of the Apostles and other saints. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 581/594.
E02218Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon on the feast of *Fructuosus, Augurius and Eulogius (martyrs of Tarragona, S00496), at the memorial shrine of *Theogenes (martyr and probably bishop of Hippo, S01133), and refers to the reading of their Martyrdom. He emphasises that, though martyrs like these, as well as *Agnes (virgin and martyr of Rome, S00097), are superior to pagan heroes, they are honoured, not worshipped by Christians. Sermo 273, delivered in Latin at Hippo Regius (North Africa), 391/397.
E02248Isidore, bishop of Seville in his De ecclesiasticis officiis explains the role of the cult of the martyrs in the doctrine of the Church, warning that the martyrs should not receive honours that are due only to God; written in Latin in Seville (south-west Spain), in 598/636.
E02282Sozomen, in his Ecclesiastical History, reports that the remains of *Paulos (bishop of Constantinople, ob. 350s, S01500) were brought from Anatolia to Constantinople in 381, and buried in a church that then bore his name. At the same time, the body of *Meletios (bishop of Antioch, S01192) was ceremoniously taken from Constantinople to Antioch and buried next to the tomb of *Babylas (bishop and martyr of Antioch, S00061). Written in Greek at Constantinople, 439/450.
E02331Gregory of Tours, in his Histories (9.6), tells of the appearance in Tours in 587 of Desiderius, a false holy man. He pretended to work miracles, attracting many who sought to be cured, and claimed to be greater than *Martin (ascetic and bishop of Tours, ob. 397, S00050) and equal to the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008). He is accused of necromancy and expelled from the city. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 587/594.
E02340Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon on the eve of the feast of the nativity of *John the Baptist (S00020), referring also to the forthcoming feast of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008). Sermon 279, delivered in Latin, possibly in Carthage (North Africa) in 401.
E02366Floor-mosaics with Greek inscriptions with poems commemorating the construction of a church dedicated to the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008), and two stone reliquaries. Found at Gerasa/Jerash (Roman province of Arabia). Probably mid-6th or early 7th c.
E02392Gregory of Tours, in his Histories (10.31), gives the list of fasts and vigils instituted by Perpetuus, the sixth bishop of Tours (bishop 460-490), in the churches of Tours (most frequently in that of *Martin (ascetic and bishop of Tours, ob. 397, S00050)), the majority associated with the commemoration of saints, both local and international. These fasts and vigils were still being held in Gregory of Tours' times. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 591/594.
E02427Gregory of Tours, in his Histories (10.31), recounts how *Martin (ascetic and bishop of Tours, ob. 397, S00050) performed miracles during his lifetime and after his death: he raised three men. He translated the body of *Gatianus (first bishop of Tours, S01175) and placed it beside the tomb of *Litorius (bishop of Tours, ob. 370/371, S01214) in the church of Litorius in Tours. He built the church of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008) at the monastery of Marmoutier in the Touraine. Sulpiciius Severus wrote his Life and many miracles happen at his grave. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 591/594.
E02505The Martyrdom of *Processus and Martinianus (martyrs of Rome, buried on the via Aurelia, S00556), is written in Latin, presumably in Rome, during Late Antiquity, perhaps in the first half of the 6th c. It narrates the imprisonment of the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008) in Rome under Nero, where they perform miracles and convert many, including Processus and Martinianus, who then free the Apostles; the tortures endured and martyrdom of Processus and Martinianus, and burial by Lucina on her estate on the via Aurelia.
E02512The Martyrdom of Sebastianus and Companions is written in Latin presumably in Rome, most probably in the 5th c. (perhaps by Arnobius the Younger). It narrates the martyrdom of *Sebastianus (martyr of Rome, S00400) and his companions: the priest Polycarpus; *Marcellianus and Marcus (twin brothers, deacons and martyrs of Rome, S01401); their parents, *Tranquillinus and Marcia (martyrs of Rome, S02747); the primiscrinius Nicostratus, his wife Zoe (martyr of Rome, S02747) and brother Castorius; the commentariensis Claudius, his wife Symphorosa (martyr of Rome, S02747), his brother Victorinus and son Symphorianus; *Tiburtius (son of the prefect Chromatius, martyr of Rome, S01404); and *Castulus (martyr of Rome, S01405). Tiburtius is buried at the third milestone of the via Labicana; Marcellianus and Marcus at the second milestone of the via Appia in the place called ad arenas, Sebastianus at the Catacumbas cemetery, in a crypt commemorating the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008).
E02540John Chrysostom, in his homily Against Games and Theatres, of 399, tells how the city sought the help of the Apostles *Peter (S00036), *Andrew (S00288), *Paul (S00008), and *Timothy (S00466), at the shrine of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople, after damaging rainfall; he also mentions a feast of thanksgiving, when the rains abated, held at a shrine of the Apostles Peter and Paul across the sea, probably the shrine of Rufinianae. Written in Greek at Constantinople.
E02566Greek graffito on a roof tile, with an invocation of *Paulos (probably the Apostle, S00008, but perhaps another saintly Paulos) and *Germanos (possibly the martyr of Caesarea in Palestine, S00195) on behalf of the circus faction of the Blues; a fragmentary dedicatory inscription to a saint whose name is lost; and a reliquary. All found in the so-called 'Church of St. Paul' at Umm er-Rasas/Kastron Mefaa, to the southeast of Madaba (Roman province of Arabia/Jordan). Probably late 6th or 7th c.
E02588Copper ring with a labelled depiction of *Paul the Apostle (S00008). Found at Umm er-Rasas/Kastron Mefaa, to the southeast of Madaba (Roman province of Arabia/Jordan). Probably 7th-8th c.
E02589Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon on the feast of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008). Sermon 295, delivered in Latin in Hippo Regius (North Africa), possibly in 405/410.
E02596Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon on the feast of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008), addressing the question of why the memorial shrines (memoriae) of these apostles, of *Laurence (deacon and martyr of Rome, S00037), and of other martyrs did not save Rome from being captured by its enemies in 410. Sermon 296, delivered in Latin, probably in Carthage (North Africa) in 411.
E02605Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon on the feast of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008), explaining why the martyrs are greater than other people. Sermon 297, delivered in Latin at an unknown city of North Africa, possibly Hippo Regius in 416/420.
E02613Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon on the feast of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008), expressing his disappointment that it is less well attended by the faithful that those of other martyrs. Sermon 298, delivered in Latin in Hippo Regius (North Africa), possibly in 426/430.
E02615Augustine of Hippo preaches in a sermon on the feast of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008). Sermon 299, delivered in Latin, possibly in Carthage (North Africa) in 418.
E02622Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon on the feast of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008). Sermon 299B, delivered in Latin, possibly in Hippo (North Africa), sometime between 391 and 430.
E02626Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon on the feast of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008). Sermon Dolbeau 4, delivered in Latin, probably in Carthage or Hippo Regius (North Africa), possibly in 403/406.
E02627Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon on the feast of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008). Sermon 299C, delivered in Latin, possibly in Hippo Regius (North Africa) in 412.
E02654Floor-mosaic with a fragmentary Greek inscription commemorating the paving of a church (naos) probably dedicated to a saint whose name is lost. Found at Riḥāb, between Bostra and Gerasa/Jerash (Jordan/the Roman province of Arabia). Probably 7th c.
E02729Sozomen, in his Ecclesiastical History, mentions the shrine and monastery of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008), founded by the patrician Rufinus (ob. 395), on his estate near Chalcedon (north-west Asia Minor, near Constantinople). In 403, it became the venue of the Council of the Oak, and resting place of the Egyptian ascetic *Ammonios (ascetic of Kellia, ob. 403, S01263), companion of the ascetic and bishop *Dioskoros (S01264), who was buried at the shrine of *Mokios (martyr of Byzantion, S01265) in Constantinople. Written in Greek at Constantinople, 439/450.
E02840Clay bread-stamp with Greek inscription invoking the blessing of *Paul (probably the Apostle, S00008), or of one of two martyrs of Caesarea (Paulos, S00164, or Paulos from Yamnia, a companion of *Pamphilos, S00140). Found in Caesarea Maritima (Roman province of Palaestina I), at the site of the presumed 'chapel of St. Paul'. Probably 5th-6th c.
E02844Pottery fragment with a fragmentary Greek graffito just possibly referring to *Paul (the Apostle, S00008). Found in Caesarea Maritima (Roman province of Palaestina I), at the site of the presumed 'chapel of St. Paul'. Probably 5th-6th c.
E02853A complex of warehouses, excavated to the north of the praetorium in Caesarea Maritima (Roman province of Palaestina I), was richly decorated with religious wall paintings showing Christ with the *Apostles (S00084), and probably the Three Egyptian martyrs: *Ares/Aretas, Promos, and Elias (S00196), and *Philemon (martyr of Antinoopolis, Egypt, S00386). Finds of small objects and the biblical background suggest the existence of a shrine of *Paul the Apostle (S00008) at the site in the 6th/7th c.
E02952The early seventh-century Georgian version of the Lectionary of Jerusalem commemorates on 21 January the dedication of a church or monastery of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036) and/or *Paul (the Apostle, S00008).
E03126The early seventh-century Georgian version of the Lectionary of Jerusalem commemorates on 30 April *Paul (the Apostle, S00008).
E03136The Eighth Council of Toledo (central Spain) in 653 is held in the church of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (00036 and S00008) according to the Latin acts of the council.
E03146The early seventh-century Georgian version of the Lectionary of Jerusalem commemorates on 9 May at the Church of the Apostles in Jerusalem the deposition of relics of the Apostles *Peter (S00036), *Thomas (S00199) and *John (S00042), of *John the Baptist (S00020), *Isaiah (Old Testament Prophet, S00280), *Theodore (soldier and martyr of Amaseia and Euchaita, S00480), Claudian (unidentified figure), *Tryphon (possibly the martyr of Nikaia/Nicaea, S00439).
E03210The early seventh-century Georgian version of the Lectionary of Jerusalem commemorates on 29 June *Peter (the Apostle, S00036) and *Paul (the Apostle, S00008).
E03229The Acts of *Sylvester (bishop of Rome, 00397) are written in Latin in a number of versions, the earliest by the 5th c. They narrate episodes of the life of Sylvester, in particular highlighting his role in the conversion and baptism of the emperor Constantine. Later translated into Greek and Syriac.
E03255The Life of *Pastor (priest and martyr of Rome, S01842) is written in Latin, presumably in Rome, at an uncertain date, by the 12th-13th c. at the latest. The Life narrates that Pastor, priest and disciple of the apostle Paul together with *Timotheus (presumably the disciple of Paul, S00466), is the dedicatee of a church (titulus pastoris) near the vicus Laterici in Rome built by the senator Pudens, where he is buried. He took care of the burial of several saints, among whom the virgins *Praxedes and Pudentiana (martyrs of Rome, S00591 and S00142), whose life he also wrote.
E03258The Lives of the Fathers of Mérida, written in Latin in 633/660, in Mérida (southern Spain), tells how an unnamed monk of the monastery of Cauliana near Mérida, who was a drunkard and glutton, reforms. Dying soon afterwards, he is confident he will be greeted in heaven by the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008), and by *Laurence (deacon and martyr of Rome, S00037). Fifteen years later his tomb is found, it smells sweetly and the body inside is uncorrupted.
E03355The early seventh-century Georgian version of the Lectionary of Jerusalem commemorates on 19 August *Paul (the Apostle, S00008).
E03382The early seventh-century Georgian version of the Lectionary of Jerusalem commemorates on 22 September the deposition of the relics of the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008).
E03390The early seventh-century Georgian version of the Lectionary of Jerusalem commemorates on 2 October the Apostles *Peter (S00036), *Paul (S00008), *Thomas (S00199), *Philip (S00109), and *Andrew (S00288), *Isaiah (Old Testament prophet, S00282), *Zechariah (Old Testament prophet, S00283), *Mamas (martyr of Kaisareia/Caesarea in Cappadocia, S00436), *Theodore (soldier and martyr and Amaseia and Euchaita, S00480) and *Christophoros (martyr of Pamphylia, S00616), *Sergios (soldier and martyr of Rusafa, S00023), *Pantaleon (martyr of Nicomedia, S00596).
E03501Theodoret of Cyrrhus in his Cure for Greek Maladies refers to the veneration of relics, the dedication of offerings for healing, the naming of children after martyrs, the replacement of pagan temples by shrines of martyrs, and the festivals of the Apostles *Peter (S00036), *Paul (S00008), and *Thomas (S00199), and of the martyrs *Sergios (soldier and martyr of Rusafa, S00023), *Markellos (martyr of Apameia on the Orontes, S01456), *Leontios (probably the martyr of Tripolis, Phoenicia, S00216), *Antoninos, and *Maurikios (martyr of Apameia, S01437). Written in Greek in the 420s, at the monastery of Nikerte near Apamea on the Orontes or in Cyrrhus (both north Syria).
E03603Floor mosaics with Greek inscriptions from the basilica at Tell Aar, c. 40 km to the northwest of Ḥamāh/Epiphaneia (Roman province of Syria II, probably within the bishopric of Apamea), commemorating the paving of a church, termed ekklesia, in 375/376, and the restoration of the same sanctuary in 434/435, this time termed a shrine of the *Apostle(s), Apostoleion.
E03725The Church Calendar of Ioane Zosime, compiled in Georgian in the 10th c., based however on 5th-7th c. prototypes from Palestine, commemorates on 30 April *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), *Basiliskos and Eutropios (martyrs of Pontus, S00388 and S01152), *James (the Apostle, son of Zebedee, S00108).
E03734The Church Calendar of Ioane Zosime, compiled in Georgian in the 10th c., based however on 5th-7th c. prototypes from Palestine, commemorates on 9 May the deposition of relics of the Apostles *Peter (S00036), *Paul (*00008), *Philip (S00109), *Thomas (S00199), of *John the Baptist (S00020), *Isaiah (Old Testament Prophet, S00280), martyrs *Theodore (possibly soldier and martyr of Amaseia and Euchaita, S00480), or a group of martyrs: Diodoros, Claudianus, Tryphaines, Nikephoros and their companions.
E03783The Church Calendar of Ioane Zosime, compiled in Georgian in the 10th c., based however on 5th-7th c. prototypes from Palestine, commemorates on 27 June *Tarachos, Probos and Andronikos (martyrs in Anazarbos, Cilicia, S00710), and *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), and *Sampson (the Xenodochos, priest in Constantinople, S01666), and *Kyrillos/Cyril (bishop of Alexandria, S00874).
E03784The Church Calendar of Ioane Zosime, compiled in Georgian in the 10th c., based however on 5th-7th c. prototypes from Palestine, commemorates on 28 June probably *Habbakuk (Old testament prophet, S01268), *Kyros and Iōannēs/Cyrus and John (physician and soldier, martyrs of Egypt, S00406) and their companion martyred women (S00167), and the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and Paul (S00008).
E03785The Church Calendar of Ioane Zosime, compiled in Georgian in the 10th c., based however on 5th-7th c. prototypes from Palestine, commemorates on 29 June in the church of the Holy Anastasis *Peter (the Apostle, S00036) and Paul (the Apostle, S00008).
E03789The Church Calendar of Ioane Zosime, compiled in Georgian in the 10th c., based however on 5th-7th c. prototypes from Palestine, commemorates on 3 July *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), *Thomas (the Apostle, S00199), and *Hyacinthus (martyr of Rome under Trajan, S01609).
E03792The Church Calendar of Ioane Zosime, compiled in Georgian in the 10th c., based however on 5th-7th c. prototypes from Palestine, commemorates on 6 July *Isaiah (Old Testament prophet, S00282), *Peter (the Apostle, S00036) and *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), 'Martheno' an unidentified figure or a heavily garbled name, and an unidentified 'monk John'.
E03837The Church Calendar of Ioane Zosime, compiled in Georgian in the 10th c., based however on 5th-7th c. prototypes from Palestine, commemorates on 19 August *Paul (the Apostle, S00008) and *Andreas Stratelates (martyr under Maximianus in early 4th c., S00763).
E03873The Church Calendar of Ioane Zosime, compiled in Georgian in the 10th c., based however on 5th-7th c. prototypes from Palestine, commemorates on 22 September *Hesychios (saint with church in Jerusalem mentioned c. 570, priest in 5th c Jerusalem?, S00261), the deposition of the relics of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), *Isaiah (Old Testament prophet, S00282), *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), *Thyrsos (martyr of Bithynia, S00612), and *Phokas (martyr of Antioch, S00413).
E03972The Church Calendar of Ioane Zosime, compiled in Georgian in the 10th c., based however on 5th-7th c. prototypes from Palestine, commemorates on 28 December *Paul (the Apostle, S00008) and *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), *John (Apostle and Evangelist, S00042), Theodore (patriarch of Constantinople, ob. 687), and the massacre of the fathers of Sinai and Raithou.
E04009Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon on the feast of the *Twenty Martyrs (of Hippo, including bishop Fidentius, Victoria and Valeria, S00703). He emphasises that it is the rightness of the cause, not the suffering itself, which makes a martyr, and presents the local saints as examples which are easier to follow than Christ or the Apostles. Sermon 325, delivered in Latin in Hippo (North Africa), possibly in 400/410.
E04110Gregory of Tours, in his Miracles of Martin (4.12), recounts how a blind woman from Ternay in the territory of Le Mans (north-west Gaul) prayed to *Martin (ascetic and bishop of Tours, ob. 397, S00050) in an oratory where relics of the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008) were placed, and was healed there by Martin; AD 589. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 589/594.
E04274Prudentius writes Crowns of the Martyrs XII, a poem on the martyrdom of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008); the poem is cast as a conversation between the poet and a citizen of Rome on the saints' feast day, in which the interlocutor of Prudentius tells the story of the martyrdom of the Apostles and describes the places of their burial. Written in Latin in Calahorra (northern Spain), c. 400. Overview of Peristephanon XII.
E04275Prudentius, in his poem (Crowns of the Martyrs XII) on the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008), tells of people gathering joyfully in Rome for their feast. Written in Latin in Calahorra (northern Spain), c. 400.
E04332Procopius of Caesarea, in his On Buildings, reports that the emperor Justinian (r. 527-565) built the first church in Constantinople of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008), in around 519, as well as the church of *Sergios and *Bakchos (soldiers and martyrs of Rusafa and Barbalissos, S00023 and S00079), both at the palace of Hormisdas. Written in Greek at Constantinople, in the 550s.
E04350Prudentius, in his poem (Crowns of the Martyrs XII) on the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008), describes their basilicas in Rome and mentions the custom of visiting both of them on the day of their feast. Written in Latin in Calahorra (northern Spain), c. 400.
E04351Prudentius, in his poem (Crowns of the Martyrs XII) on the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008), tells that on the feast of the saints the bishop of Rome celebrates mass in both basilicas. Written in Latin in Calahorra (northern Spain), c. 400.
E04457Gregory the Great, in his Dialogues, recounts a number of miraculous stories, and considers the nature of miracles. Written in Latin in Rome, c. 593.
E04500Gregory the Great, in his Dialogues (3.29), describes how an Arian bishop was struck blind when he attempted to celebrate his services in the church of *Paul (the Apostle, S00008) in Spoleto (central Italy). Written in Latin in Rome, c. 593.
E04532Greek inscription commemorating the restoration of a floor-mosaic 'to the glory (doxa) of God and honour (time)' of an unnamed Apostle. Possibly mentioning a shrine termed an Apostoleion, repaved through the intercession of that Apostle. Found at Seleukeia/Seleucia Pieria near Antioch on the Orontes (Roman province of Syria I). Dated 564.
E04547Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon on the feast of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008), explaining that they died on the same day, but not in the same year. Sermon 381, in Latin; if authentic, preached in an unknown city of North Africa, sometime between 391 and 430.
E04572Greek inscriptions on a water basin, recording the names of *Paul (probably the Apostle, S00008), and *Gregorios (possibly Gregory of Nazianzus, S00837). Found at Antioch of Pisidia (west central Asia Minor). Probably 7th c. or later.
E04597Gregory the Great, in his Dialogues (4.12), describes a deathbed vision experienced by a priest of Nursia (central Italy) of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008). Written in Latin in Rome, c. 593.
E04622The 6th/7th c. recension of the Latin Martyrologium Hieronymianum, as transmitted in 8th c. manuscripts, records the feasts of a number of saints on 25 January.
E04639Encomion in Coptic on the *Apostles (S02422 and S00084) with an emphasis on *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008), and including an account of the life and martyrdom of *Mark (the Evangelist, S00293), from the monastery of the Archangel Michael near Hamouli in the Fayum (Lower Egypt), attributed to Severianos of Gabala and delivered on their feast day (29 June) at a sanctuary of the Apostles in a cemetery of an unnamed city; if by Severianos, originally delivered in Greek in the late 4th/early 5th century, probably in Constantinople.
E04657Paulinus of Nola, in a metrical letter (Carmen 24) addressed to Cyntherius, an Aquitanian aristocrat , in c. 400, describes two miraculous escapes experienced by a messenger from southern Gaul to Nola: one, effected by *Paul (the Apostle, S00008) and involving a copy of his Epistles, and one by *Felix (priest and confessor of Nola, S00000). Written in Latin at Nola (southern Italy).
E04741Paulinus of Nola composes fourteen poems (the Natalicia) to be delivered at Nola/Cimitile (southern Italy) on the feast day of *Felix (priest and confessor of Nola, S00000). They include an account of Felix’s life, and descriptions of devotion to Felix, focusing on his feast day (14 January), miracles performed by the saint, and the expansion of Felix’s shrine which took place under Paulinus. Written in Latin, in Spain and later Nola, between 395 and 408. Overview entry.
E04767Paulinus of Nola, in many of his fourteen poems (the Natalicia) written in honour of *Felix (priest and confessor of Nola, S00000), identifies Felix as the special protector (patronus) of Nola (southern Italy); the similar role of other saints, in other regions, is detailed in Natalicium 11. Written in Latin, in Spain and later Nola, between 395 and 408.
E04798Latin epitaph for a woman with labelled paintings of the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008). Found in a cemetery on the via Ardeatina, Rome. Probably late 4th c.
E05029Greek inscription commemorating the construction of a church (hieron, naos), just possibly dedicated to the Apostle *Paul (S00008). Found at Amida, Roman province of Mesopotamia. Dated probably 437/438.
E05069The 6th/7th c. recension of the Latin Martyrologium Hieronymianum, as transmitted in 8th c. manuscripts, records the feasts of a number of saints on 30 December.
E05087Latin and Greek graffiti invoking the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008). Found at the Memoria Apostolorum at the cemetery ad Catacumbas, under the church of S. Sebastiano on the via Appia, Rome. Probably mid-3rd c. - early 4th c.
E05094Paulinus of Nola, in various letters written between 399 and 408, states that he regularly visits Rome to venerate the apostles and martyrs; initially these visits took place on the feast of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008) in June; later he made them shortly after Easter. Written in Latin at Nola (southern Italy) and Rome.
E05108Fragmentary Latin epitaph for a woman ‘united with saints’, probably recording a burial ad sanctos. Found at the cemetery ‘ad Catacumbas’, near the church of S. Sebastiano/Basilica Apostolorum, via Appia, Rome. Probably second half of the 4th c.
E05109Latin epitaph invoking protection for the deceased of the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008) as martyrs, not apostles. Found near the church of S. Sebastiano/Basilica Apostolorum at the Cemetery 'ad Catacumbas', via Appia, Rome. Probably 4th c.
E05192Coptic Encomion on Apa *Apollo (S01968), Pachomian monk and founder of the monastery of *Isaak (S00276), presumably located near Herakleopolis Magna (Middle Egypt), attributed to Stephanos, bishop of Herakleopolis Magna, and presented on Apollo’s day of commemoration, relating the saint’s ascetic life as a monk in the Pachomian monastery at Pbow, his virtues and great humility, his wanderings, as well as his founding of the monastery of Isaak, his prophetic gift and numerous miracles performed during his lifetime as well as posthumously; written presumably in the later 6th century.
E05217Hymn (Apostolorum passio), almost certainly by Ambrose of Milan, for the feast day of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008). Written in Latin in Milan (northern Italy), probably after 386.
E05246Painting on the vault of a cubiculum, showing Christ flanked by the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008) in the upper register, and, in the lower register, four martyrs labelled with painted Latin inscriptions: *Gorgonius (martyr of Rome, S00576), *Marcellinus and Petrus (martyrs of Rome, S00577), and *Tiburtius (son of the prefect Chromatius and martyr of Rome, S01404), flanking the Lamb of God. Found in the cemetery inter duas lauros /ad Sanctos Marcellinum et Petrum, via Labicana, Rome. Probably 5th c.
E05283The Greek Life of *Theodoros (abbot of Sykeon, ob. 613, S01619), by Eleusios-Georgios of Sykeon, mentions several shrines and festivals of saints at Sykeon and other places in Anatolia, the Holy Land, and Constantinople. Written at Sykeon (central Asia Minor), in the 640s.
E05292Mosaic on the triumphal arch of the church of S. Lorenzo fuori le mura on the via Tiburtina, Rome, with Christ flanked by the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008), who are in turn flanked by *Laurence/Laurentius (deacon and martyr of Rome, S00037), presenting to Christ Pope Pelagius II holding a model of the basilica, and *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) presenting *Hippolytus (martyr of Rome, S00509). 579/590.
E05316Maximus of Turin preaches four sermons (Sermons 1, 2, 9 and 110) for the feast of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008). Delivered in Latin in Turin (northern Italy), between c. 390 and 408/423.
E05317Maximus of Turin, in a sermon (Sermon 3), rebukes his congregation in Turin (northern Italy) for their poor attendance at the feast of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008). Delivered in Latin between c. 390 and 408/423.
E05339Gaudentius of Brescia preaches a sermon (Sermon 20) for the feast of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00009). Delivered in Latin in Milan (northern Italy), before 397.
E05371The Miracles of Saint Thekla (4) recounts how *Thekla (follower of the Apostle Paul, S00092) overpowered Zeus, drove him from Seleucia ad Calycadnum, and made his temple into a shrine of *Paul (the Apostle, S00008). He mentions the veneration of Paul at Tarsus and Thekla at Seleucia by the citizens of both cities, explains how the saints can help us on earth, and enumerates the many types of miracle that Thekla can bring about. Written in Greek at Seleucia ad Calycadnum (southern Asia Minor) in the 470s.
E05375Latin epitaph for a boy, decorated with a carving of labelled busts of the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008). Found in the cemetery of Hippolytus, via Tiburtina, Rome. Probably 4th c.
E05460Proclus of Constantinople composes his Homily 18, On *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), which he delivers during a festival in Constantinople. Written in Greek in the early 5th c.
E05478Pope Pelagius I, in two letters of 556 (Epistolae Arelatenses, 48 and 49), refers to a gift to the Frankish king Childebert of relics of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008), and of other unnamed saints and martyrs (S00518), to be delivered via Bishop Sapaudus of Arles. Written in Latin in Rome.
E05488Leo the Great composes a Latin sermon (Sermon 82) in Rome in 441 in honour of the feast day of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00009).
E05489Leo the Great composes a Latin sermon (Sermon 83) in Rome in 443 in honour of the feast day of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00009).
E05490Leo the Great composes a Latin sermon (Sermon 84) in Rome in 442/3 in which he invokes the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00009) as he rebukes his congregation for their absence from the commemoration of the anniversary of Alaric’s sack of Rome in 410.
E05555Venantius Fortunatus writes eleven books of Poems in Latin, mainly in western and north-western Gaul, 565/600; many of them with reference to saints. Overview entry.
E05563Venantius Fortunatus, in a poem (1.2) on the church of *Andrew (the Apostle, S00288) built by Bishop 'Vitalis' of Ravenna, lists the relics housed there. Written in Latin in Ravenna (north-east Italy), 545/565.
E05606Bede, in his Martyrology, records the feast on 22 August of *Timotheus (martyr of Rome, S00330), whom *Silvester (bishop of Rome, ob. 336, S00397) received as a guest, and who was buried next to *Paul (the Apostle, S00008). Written in Latin at Wearmouth-Jarrow (north-east Britain), 725/731.
E05626Bede, in his Martyrology, records the feast on 23 September 'in the East' of *Thecla (follower of the Apostle Paul, S00092). Written in Latin at Wearmouth-Jarrow (north-east Britain), 725/731.
E05639Venantius Fortunatus, in a poem (2.13) on an oratory built by a certain 'Trasaricus', mentions its relics of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), *Martin (ascetic and bishop of Tours, ob. 397, S00050) and *Remigius (bishop of Reims, ob. c. 533, S00456); perhaps in Toul (eastern Gaul), in the mid-6th c. Written in Latin in Gaul, 565/576.
E05643The Miracles of Saint Thekla (26) recounts how *Thekla (follower of the Apostle Paul, S00092) travels from Seleucia to attend her festival at Dalisandos (also in Isauria). In a similar way, *Paul (the Apostle, S00008) is said to travel from Rome to the festival in Tarsos, his hometown. Thekla has also rescued Dalisandos when besieged, having appeared on the nearby peak, dazzling the eyes of the enemies. Written in Greek at Seleucia ad Calycadnum (southern Asia Minor) in the 470s.
E05648The Miracles of Saint Thekla (29) recounts how *Thekla (follower of the Apostle Paul, S00092) punished with death Marianos, bishop of Tarsus in Cilicia, the hometown of *Paul (the Apostle, S00008) for preventing the Tarsians from coming to her festival at Seleucia. Written in Greek at Seleucia ad Calycadnum (southern Asia Minor) in the 470s.
E05651Latin Orationale of the Old Hispanic Liturgy of the 7th c. (Orationale Visigothicum), with prayers used on the feasts of saints in June and July: *Adrianos and Natalia (martyr of Nicomedia and his pious wife, S01342), *John the Baptist (S00020), *Peter the Apostle (S00036), *Paul the Apostle (S00008), *Iusta and Rufina (martyrs of Seville, S02099), and *Cucuphas (martyr of Barcelona, S00502).
E05683Venantius Fortunatus, in a poem (3.7) about the cathedral of Nantes (north-west Gaul), newly built by bishop Felix, and dedicated to the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008), makes possible reference to relics of the two apostles and clear reference to relics of *Hilary (bishop of Poitiers, ob. 367, S00183) and *Ferreolus (soldier and martyr of Vienne, S01893); all in 567. Written in Latin in Gaul, 565/576.
E05779Agnellus of Ravenna, in his Liber Pontificalis Ecclesiae Ravennatis, written in Latin, describes an image (or possibly two images) of Christ and the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00009) in a narthex dedicated to Peter in Ravenna (northern Italy); Agnellus dates this image to 450/473. Account written in Ravenna in 830/846.
E05790Agnellus of Ravenna, in his Liber Pontificalis Ecclesiae Ravennatis, written in Latin, refers to the foundation and decoration of several churches and monasteria dedicated to *Theodore (soldier and martyr of Amaseia and Euchaita, S00480), *Martin (ascetic and bishop of Tours, ob. 397), *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), and *Paul (the Apostle, S00009) in Ravenna (northern Italy). He claims these events took place between 475 and 691. Account written in Ravenna in 830/846.
E05840The Calendar of Willibrord, in its earliest version, records the feasts of various saints in January. Written in Latin at Echternach, Frisia (north-east Gaul), 703/710.
E05856The Calendar of Willibrord, in its earliest version, records the feasts of various saints in June. Written in Latin at Echternach, Frisia (north-east Gaul), 703/710.
E05879An anonymous author compiles the Miracles of Saint Thekla, a collection of miracle stories ascribed to *Thekla (follower of the Apostle Paul, S00092), whose cult was centred in her church at Seleucia ad Calycadnum, Isauria (southern Asia Minor). Written in Greek at Seleucia in the 470s. Overview entry
E05894Hesychius of Jerusalem composes his Homily 13, On *Peter and *Paul (apostles, S00036 and S00008), which he preaches during their feast on 28 December in Jerusalem. Written in Greek at Jerusalem, in the early 5th c.
E05946In the anonymous Life of the Jura Fathers the author recounts how *Eugendus (ascetic in the Jura mountains, ob. 512/515, S02182) had a vision of the Apostles: *Peter (S00036), *Paul (S00008) and *Andrew (S00288), and how their relics came to the monastery in Condat; 460/496. Written in Latin at Condat in the Jura mountains (modern Saint-Claude in eastern Gaul), 512/525.
E05950Mosaic portraits of twelve apostles and twelve martyrs (six female, six male) depicted on the barrel vaults of the Cappella Arcivescovile in Ravenna (northern Italy), datable 494/520.
E05960In the Whitby Life of *Gregory the Great (bishop of Rome, ob. 604, S00838), the author notes the lack of miracles attributed to the saint, and theorises on the importance of miracles as proof of sanctity. Written in Latin by a monk or nun of Whitby (north-east Britain), 685/714, perhaps 704/14.
E06018Mosaics from the late 5th or early 6th c., depicting the Apostles, in the Arian Baptistry in Ravenna, northern Italy.
E06027Mosaics from the 5th c. depicting several Apostles, including *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00009), and a saintly deacon, either *Vincent (deacon and martyr of Saragossa and Valentia, S00290) or *Laurence (deacon and martyr of Rome, S01229). Mosaics preserved in the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia in Ravenna, northern Italy.
E06028A letter of Pope Pelagius II of 586, to Bishop Aunacharius of Auxerre (northern Gaul), sends contact relics (sanctuaria), probably of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008). Written in Latin in Rome.
E06042Pope Vitalianus, in a letter to Oswiu, king of the Northumbrians (northern Britain), states that he is sending him and his wife relics of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), *Paul (the Apostle, S00088), *Iohannes and Paulus (martyrs of Rome, S00384), *Gregory ('the Great,' bishop of Rome, ob. 604, S00838), and *Pancratius (martyr of Rome, S00307). Written in Latin at Rome, 666/8; recorded by Bede, writing at Wearmouth-Jarrow (north-east Britain), 731.
E06047Mosaics from the 6th c. depicting the Apostles, *Gervasius and Protasius (martyrs of Milan, S00313), and *Vitalis (martyr of Ravenna, S02826) in San Vitale, Ravenna (northern Italy).
E06055Anonymous sermon ('Eusebius Gallicanus', Sermon 33), on the feast of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008). Preached in Latin in Gaul, probably in the 5th c.
E06060Adomnán, in his Life of *Columba (abbot of Iona, ob. 597, S02167), describes how Columba brought a dead child back to life, thus equalling the prophets *Elijah and *Elisha (S00217 and S00239] and the apostles *Peter (S00036), *Paul (S00008) and *John (S00042). Written in Latin at Iona, 696/704.
E06095The will of Bertram/Bertrand, bishop of Le Mans (ob. 623), establishes as the bishop's heirs two churches at Le Mans (north-west Gaul), one dedicated to *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), the other to the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008); and makes provisions concerning numerous properties across Gaul, including churches associated with various saints, mostly in or around Le Mans. Written in Latin at Le Mans, 27 March 616.
E06224An authentic Merovingian royal diploma records the gift of the forest of Cormeilles by Childebert III, king of the Franks, to the women's monastery at Argenteuil (northern Gaul) dedicated to *Mary (mother of Christ, S00033), the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008) and other *unnamed saints (S00518). Written in Latin, probably at Compiègne (northern Gaul), 697.
E06225An authentic Merovingian royal diploma records the foundation and endowment by Sigebert III, king of the Franks, of the monastery at Cugnon-sur-Semois (north-east Gaul) dedicated to the Apostle *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008), and *John (either the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042, or the Baptist, S00020), and other *unnamed martyrs (S00066). Written in Latin in Gaul, 643/8.
E06226Two authentic Merovingian royal diplomas record the foundation by Sigebert III, king of the Franks, of the monasteries at Stavelot and Malmedy (north-east Gaul) dedicated to, and holding relics of, *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), *John (either the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle, S00042), *Martin (ascetic and bishop of Tours, ob. 397, S00050), and other *unnamed saints (S00518); and their later confirmation by Theuderic III, king of the Franks, who also speaks of a dedication to *Mary (mother of Christ, S00033). Written in Latin in Gaul, 643/7-679/91.
E06227A substantially authentic Merovingian royal diploma records the immunity confirmed by Clovis III, king of the Franks, to the monastery at Sithiu (now Saint-Bertin) (north-east Gaul) dedicated to *Mary (mother of Christ, S00033), the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008), and other *unnamed saints (S00518). Written in Latin in Gaul, 692.
E06228A substantially authentic Merovingian royal diploma records the immunity confirmed by Theuderic III, king of the Franks, to the monastery at Montier-en-Der (north-east Gaul) dedicated to the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008), and other *unnamed saints (S00518). Written in Latin, probably at Compiègne (north-east Gaul), 685.
E06233The Formulary of Marculf includes a template for a letter of recommendation for a pilgrim heading to Rome to visit the shrines of the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008). Written in Latin in Gaul, probably c. 650/730.
E06245Venantius Fortunatus, in a poem on virginity (8.3), when describing the court of heaven lists numerous saints with the cities of their resting-place. Written in Latin in Gaul, probably in the early 570s.
E06256Tírechán, in his Collection, describes how *Patrick (missionary and bishop of Ireland, 5th c., S01962) gave Bishop Olcanus relics of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008) and other *unnamed saints (S00518), which he wrapped in a veil. Written in Latin in Ireland, probably shortly after c. 668.
E06266The Life of Lady *Balthild (queen of the Franks, ob. 680, S02359) records the saint's life, death, and one posthumous miracle. Written in Latin in Gaul, possibly at the monastery at Chelles (near Paris), 680/690. Overview entry
E06275The Life of *Audoin, Bishop of Rouen (also known as Dado, ob. 686, S02199) records the saint's life, death, translation and miracles, as well as his journeys to Rome and Cologne to collect the relics of other (unnamed) saints. Written in Latin in Gaul, probably in Neustria (northern Francia), c. 700.
E06351Gregory the Great in a papal letter (Register 4.30) of 594, to the Empress Constantina, rejects her request for the head of *Paul (the Apostle, S00008) for a church of Paul she was building in the imperial palace in Constantinople, and condemns the 'Greek' practise of disturbing the corporeal relics of the saints; Gregory writes that those who inadvertently opened the grave of *Laurence (deacon and martyr of Rome, S00037) all died soon after, and explains the papal practice of creating cloth contact relics of the saints (brandea); he sends the empress filings taken from the chains that had once bound Paul. Written in Latin in Rome.
E06370Gregory the Great in a papal letter (Register 6.50) of 596, to Palladius, bishop of Saintes (western Gaul), discusses a church in Saintes to the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036; S00008), and the Roman martyrs *Laurence and *Pancratius (S00037; S00307), and mentions the despatch of relics of these four saints for altars in the church. Written in Latin in Rome.
E06371Gregory the Great in a papal letter (Register 6.58) of 596, to Brunhild, queen of the Franks, grants her relics of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036; S00008), and enjoins her that they be treated with due respect. Written in Latin in Rome.
E06404Gregory the Great with a papal letter (Register 9.184) of 599, to Constantius, bishop of Milan (northern Italy), sends contact relics (sanctuaria) of *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), *John (probably the Baptist, S00020) and *Pancratius (martyr of Rome, S00307), and sets out how they should be deposited. Written in Latin in Rome.
E06423Gregory the Great in a papal letter (Register 11.55) of 601, to Eusebius, bishop of Thessalonike (south Balkans/Greece), mentions a monk who had been an anchorite at a monastery dedicated to *Paul (the Apostle, S00008) in Rome. Written in Latin in Rome.
E06436Gregory the Great with a papal letter (Register 13.43) of 603, to Eulogius, bishop of Alexandria (Lower Egypt), sends a small cross containing fragments of the chains of the apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008); he encourages Eulogius to place the cross over his eyes, since these relics often effect miracles. Gregory also thanks Eulogius for a gift of relics of *Mark (the Evangelist, S00293). Written in Latin in Rome.
E06443Gregory the Great in a papal letter (Register 14.14) of 604, to Felix, sub-deacon and governor of the Appian patrimony, details lands which will be used to support the lighting of the church of *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), San Paolo fuori le mura; in detailing the locations of these lands, monasteries of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) and 'of saint *Aristus' (possibly Hedistus, martyr of Laurentum, S01229), both close to San Paolo, are mentioned. Written in Latin in Rome.
E06491Jerome, in his Letter 108, describes how Paula travelled through Palestine in 385 and visited: Antipatris, place of imprisonment of *Paul (the Apostle, S00008); Lydda/Diospolis, associated with a visit and a healing by Paul; Arimathea, hometown of *Joseph of Arimathea (New Testament figure, S01787); Nob, burial-site of *Eighty-five priests (killed by Saul in the Old Testament, S02453); Joppa, associated with *Jonah (Old Testament Prophet, S01237); and Nicopolis/Emmaus, where Jesus consecrated as a church the house of *Cleopas (pupil of Jesus, S00249). Written in Latin, in Bethlehem, 404.
E06549Aldhelm, in his prose On Virginity, names *Paul (the Apostle, S00008) as an exemplary virgin, and rejects the Revelation of Paul as an apocryphal text. Written in Latin in southern Britain, for the nuns at the monastery at Barking (south-east Britain), c. 675/686.
E06586The Latin Gelasian Sacramentary (or Liber Sacramentorum Romanae Ecclesiae), probably compiled around 750 near Paris using earlier material from Rome, records prayers to saints on their feast days in June.
E06587The Latin Gelasian Sacramentary (or Liber Sacramentorum Romanae Ecclesiae), probably compiled around 750 near Paris using earlier material from Rome, records prayers to saints on their feast days in July.
E06595Sidonius Apollinaris in his Letter 1.5 to Heronius, of 467/470, describes his visit to Rome, where, before enterinf the city, he visited the churches of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008). Written in Latin at Clermont (central Gaul).
E06659Aldhelm's verse On Virginity lists a range of saints as exemplary virgins, with some variations to the list found in the earlier prose version of the same treatise. Written in Latin in southern Britain, for the nuns at the monastery at Barking (south-east Britain), c. 675/710. Overview entry
E06788A Latin papyrus preserved in Monza (northern Italy) lists the 'oils of the holy martyrs who in body rest in Rome' brought from Rome for Theodelinda, queen of the Lombards, naming many Roman saints. Written at Monza or Rome, 590/604; preserved in its original copy.
E06909The ‘General Decretal’ of Pope Gelasius I, of 494, states that virgins ought to be consecrated only on certain feast days, including those 'of the Apostles', presumably *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008).
E06916Aldhelm's poem On the Basilica of Saints Peter and Paul records the dedication of a church to the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008), presumably in Britain, perhaps at Malmesbury (south-west Britain). Written in Latin in southern Britain, c. 670/710.
E06920Aldhelm, in his poem On the Altars of the Twelve Apostles, records the dedication of an altar to *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), presumably in Britain. Written in Latin in southern Britain, c. 670/710.
E06933The Book of the Angel outlines the privileges of the church at Armagh (north-east Ireland) associated with *Patrick (missionary and bishop of Ireland, 5th c., S01962), based in part on the honour due to (its relics of) *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), and *Laurence (deacon and martyr of Rome, S00037), as well as a relic of the blood of Christ. An addendum delineates the relationship between the churches in Ireland of Patrick and those of *Brigit (abbess of Kildare, ob. c. 525, S01885). Written in Latin at Armagh, perhaps as early as c. 640/60.
E06989The De Locis Sanctis, a guide to the graves of the martyrs around Rome, lists those on the via Ostiensis, south-west of the city. Written in Latin in Rome, 642/683.
E06992The De Locis Sanctis, a guide to the graves of the martyrs around Rome, lists those on the via Appia, south of the city. Written in Latin in Rome, 642/683.
E07031The Greek Life of *Auxibios (bishop of Soli, S01377) recounts the life of one of the first bishops of Cyprus and a disciple of the apostle Mark. It provides a foundation narrative for the ecclesiastical community of Soli (Cyprus), and refers to the saint’s tomb which was never opened, and where miracles occur. Written at Soli in the early 7th century.
E07141The Greek Martyrdom of *Paul (martyr and apostle, S02681). Skeleton entry
E07369Latin inscription with reference to relics of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008), found in Carthage (Africa Proconsularis), probably 4th/5th c.
E07379William of Malmesbury, in his On the Antiquity of the Church of Glastonbury, quotes an inscription recording the dedication of a church at Glastonbury (south-west Britain) to the apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008) during the reign of Ine, king of the West Saxons. Written in Latin at Glastonbury, purportedly 688/726; recorded at Glastonbury or Malmesbury (south-west Britain), c. 1129.
E07429The Hymn of Secundius praises *Patrick (missionary and bishop of Ireland, 5th c.), and equates him with the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008). Written in Latin in Ireland, 450/650.
E07430Columbanus, in a letter to Pope Boniface IV (608-615), states that the Irish are 'disciples' of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008), whose relics have made the bishops (or clergy/people) of Rome 'favoured' (felices). Written in Latin at Milan, 613.
E07517Funerary plaque with a carving showing unlabelled figures of *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008) the Apostles, and Christ in the scene of the traditio legis. Found in the Catacombs of Priscilla on the via Salaria, Rome. Probably late 4th c. [provisional entry]
E07615Jonas' Lives of *Columbanus (monk and missionary in Ireland, Gaul and Italy, ob. 615, S01983) and his Disciples records the life, miracles and death of the saint, followed by accounts of miracles performed through *Athala (second abbot of Bobbio (northern Italy), ob. 625/6 S01948), *Eustasius (second abbot of Luxeuil (eastern Gaul), ob. 629, S02255) and *Bertulf (third abbot of Bobbio, ob. 639, S02828), together with those that took place among the nuns of Faremoutiers (northern Gaul). Written in Latin, possibly at Marchiennes (north-east Gaul), 642/3.
E07696Sophronius of Jerusalem, in his Miracles of the Saints Cyrus and John (51), recounts how *Kyros and Ioannes/Cyrus and John (physician and soldier, martyrs of Egypt, S00406) healed a certain Georgios from a cataract and delivered him from death during a pestilence, all at their sanctuary at Menouthis (near Alexandria, Lower Egypt). He also mentions veneration of *Paul (the Apostle, S00008) and *Menas (soldier and martyr buried at Abu Mena, S00073). Written in Greek in Alexandria, 610/615.
E07739Gregory of Tours, in his Histories (2.5), describes how *Aravatius/Servatius (bishop of Tongeren, mid-4th c. [believed by Gregory to have been bishop of Maastricht, mid-5th c.], S01289), travelled to Rome to pray at the shrine of 'the Apostle', probably *Peter (the Apostle, S00036) or perhaps *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), that his see would be protected from the Huns. Instead he is told that he will die before the Huns' invasion takes place. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 575/594.
E07847Venantius Fortunatus, in a poem (10.7) for the feast day of *Martin (ascetic and bishop of Tours, ob. 397, S00050), depicts Martin in heaven with Christ, the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008), *Eugenia (virgin and martyr of Rome, S00401), and *Radegund (former queen and monastic founder, ob. 587, S00182), who had died not long before the composition of the poem. Written in Latin in Gaul, 587/588.
E07892The Itinerarium Malmesburiense, a guide to saints' graves around and within Rome, lists those outside the porta Appia on the via Appia, south of the city. Written in Latin in Rome, 642/683.
E07894The Itinerarium Malmesburiense, a guide to saints' graves around and within Rome, lists those outside the porta Ostiensis (now called saint Paul's gate) on the via Ostiensis, south-west of the city. Written in Latin in Rome, 642/683.
E07974The Paschal Chronicle records that the vanguard of the Avar army arrived at Constantinople during the siege of 626 on the feast of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008). Written in Greek at Constantinople, c. 630.
E08033The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor mentions under the year 571/572 that the emperor Justin II built churches in Constantinople dedicated to the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008), and expanded the church of *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033) at Blachernae. Chronicle compiled in the Byzantine Empire in the early 9th c., using extracts from earlier Greek texts.
E08115The so-called Barbarus Scaligeri, a Latin translation of a lost Greek chronography dating from the 6th c., records the martyrdom of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036) and *Paul (the Apostle, S00008).