Site logo

The Cult of Saints in Late Antiquity


from its origins to circa AD 700, across the entire Christian world


Name

Saints, unnamed

Saint ID

S00518

Gender
Male
Female
Type of Saint
Related Evidence Records
IDTitle
E00052Gregory of Tours, in his Life of *Gregory (bishop of Langres, ob. 539/540, S00038), recounts how, secretly by night, the saint visited the baptistery in Dijon (eastern Gaul), where there were many relics of saints. From Gregory's Life of the Fathers, written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 573/594.
E00223Gregory of Tours, in his Life of *Aemilianus and Brachio (hermit, and monastic founder of the Auvergne and Touraine, ob. 535/550 and 576, S00087), tells how Brachio learned to read and write by copying the inscriptions around the images of apostles and other saints, in an oratory in Clermont (central Gaul), shortly before 534. From Gregory's Life of the Fathers, written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 573/594.
E00224Gregory of Tours, in his Life of *Aemilianus and Brachio (hermit, and monastic founder of the Auvergne and Touraine, ob. 535/550 and 576, S00087), recounts how relics of saints were deposited overnight on the altar of the church of *Martin (ascetic and bishop of Tours, ob. 397, S00050) in Tours; Brachio held vigils in the church and witnessed the apparition of a miraculous ball of fire. From Gregory's Life of the Fathers, written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 573/594.
E00291Gregory of Tours, in his Life of *Senoch (ascetic and miracle-worker near Tours, ob. 576, S00116), recounts how, through the prayers of the saint, a reliquary miraculously fitted into the altar of a renovated oratory in the Touraine (north-west Gaul), where *Martin (ascetic and bishop of Tours, ob. 397, S00050) had once prayed. From Gregory's Life of the Fathers, written in Latin in Tours, 573/594.
E00336Coptic letter from the region of Hermopolis Magna (Middle Egypt) written in the 7th c., referring to a planned journey to venerate an unnamed saint (S00518) at or in the vicinity of a convent.
E00346Coptic papyrus letter sent to the monastery at Bawit (Middle Egypt) of Apa *Apollo (founder of the monastery at Bawit, 4th c., S00160), written in the 8th c., containing a request to remember the sender with a gift to the saint (unnamed, S00518).
E00371Gregory of Tours, in his Glory of the Martyrs (5), mentions a visit to the grave of *Hilary (bishop of Poitiers, ob. 367, S00183), and his veneration in the monastery of Radegund of the reliquary of the Holy Cross and unnamed saints; both in Poitiers (western Gaul) in 573/587. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 580/594.
E00385Gregory of Tours, in his Glory of the Martyrs (5), in discussing a cloth which had wrapped the Holy Cross, mentions relics of (unnamed) saints brought from the Holy Land to Tours. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 580/594.
E00516Gregory of Tours, in his Glory of the Martyrs (33), tells of an oratory of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) in Tours, which after an enlargement ordered by Gregory was provided with his relics; these were collected from the oratory of the bishop's residence in Tours, from a reliquary containing the relics of several saints, which miraculously, and unaided, first sprung open and later locked itself. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 580/594.
E00518Gregory of Tours, in his Glory of the Martyrs (33), tells of a woman, who in 577/585 experienced while fully awake a vision of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), accompanied by other saints, in the crypt of a church of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036) in Bordeaux (south-west Gaul), where relics of unspecified saints were housed; Stephen, who had just rescued a ship at sea, dripped sea water on the floor; absorbed by the woman into a cloth, this acted as a powerful relic and was used by the bishop of Bordeaux in the consecration of churches. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 580/594.
E00603Gregory of Tours, in his Glory of the Martyrs (64), tells of the construction of an impressive church of *Antolianus (martyr of Clermont, S00347) at Clermont (central Gaul) in c. 515; but in the process other holy bodies were disturbed, displeasing the saint; the church developed cracks and eventually collapsed in 571/593, but miraculously without loss of life or damage to its altar and marble columns. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 580/594.
E00627Gregory of Tours, in his Glory of the Martyrs (83), tells how his father acquired, in 533, relics of unnamed saints and was protected by them; how his mother repelled fire with them; and how he himself was saved from a storm by them, and was subsequently taught a lesson in humility. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 580/594.
E00637The Notitia ecclesiarum urbis Romae, a guide to saints' graves around Rome, lists those on the via Salaria nova, north-east of the city. Written in Latin in Rome, 625/649.
E00653Gregory of Tours, in his Glory of the Martyrs (100), tells of relics of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), and of other unnamed saints, being hosted at an oratory in the territory of Limoges (western Gaul), and refusing to move on until a part was left at the oratory; other relics of George effect many miracles in a village in the territory of Le Mans (north-west Gaul). Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 580/594.
E00749Movsēs Xorenac'i's History of Armenia, written in Armenian and traditionally considered a 5th c. text, but most probably of the early 8th c., summarises the conversion of Armenia and the results of the conversion, celebrating the appearance of the martyr shrines of the saints and the Hellenization of the Armenian religion.
E00825Greek inscription commemorating the paving of an aisle and the construction of a chancel screen in a church at Bargylia (Caria, western Asia Minor) by a certain Auxibios, probably a member of the city council, giving thanks to *Peter (the Apostle, S00036) and unnamed saints (S00518). Probably late antique (5th-6th c.).
E00939Greek inscription commemorating the restoration of a property (perhaps a tomb) by a municipal official with a reference to the intercession of unnamed saints (S00518) and the blessed ones. Found in Nikomedia (Bithynia, north-west Asia Minor). Probably 4th-5th c.
E00962Greek epitaph for a young woman, praised as a diligent servant of God and probably also of unnamed saints (S00518). Found near Prousias/Prusias ad Hypium (Honoriad, northern Asia Minor). Probably late antique.
E00978Greek epitaph for a woman, 'former deacon of the saints' (unnamed, S00518), ending with an invocation of *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033). Found at Amisos (Helenopontus, northern Asia Minor). 562.
E01004Greek epitaph for a silversmith and presbyter (of a church?) of unnamed saints (S00518). Found at Ankyra (Galatia, central Asia Minor). Probably 5th-6th c.
E01208Greek inscription on a sarcophagus with an epitaph, probably for a bishop (unnamed) who preached on the doctrine of the Holy Trinity, considered by the locals as a successful intercessor. Found near Laphiona (Lesbos, the Aegean Islands). Probably 4th-5th c.
E01226Fragmentary Greek inscription, once wrongly thought to have been the epitaph for a martyred 1st c. preacher of the Gospel. Found in the city of Rhodes (Rhodes, the Aegean Islands). No certain dating.
E01240The Syriac Chronicle of Pseudo-Zachariah Rhetor recounts how, after the fall of the city of Amida (northern Mesopotamia) to the Persian army of Kavadh I in the year 503, the king took various spoils from the church of the *Forty Martyrs of Sebaste (martyrs of the early 4th c., S00103), amongst which the dried wine, that the clergy sometimes pretended was the contact relic ḥnānā. Written, probably in Amida, c. 568/569.
E01341The episcopal basilica of Kourion (eastern Cyprus) housed a mosaic with depictions of two Church Fathers and an unnamed *Archangel (S00191). Probably 6th c.
E01463Discourse Ad philosophum gentilem written in Coptic by Shenoute, abbot of the White Monastery at Sohag, ob. 465 (Upper Egypt), addressing a pagan philosopher, possibly Gesios of Panopolis, on his second visit to the monastery, discussing proper and improper religious behaviour and belief, stating that a Christian is not only to please God and Christ, but to also satisfy the saints in heaven.
E01688Greek inscription commemorating the construction of the so-called 'Basilica of Ioulianos' at Barad/Brad in the Limestone Massif (north Syria, between Antioch on the Orontes and Beroia/Aleppo) through the intercession of unnamed saints. Dated 402.
E01758Amulets from the collection of S. Ayvaz with Greek inscriptions invoking the Archangels: *Michael (S00181), *Gabriel (S00192), *Ouriel (S00770), and depictions showing *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), and a holy rider. Found in Syria, various locations. Probably Roman impeiral, late antique, and/or middle Byzantine. Pagan and/or Christian.
E01770Bronze medallion with a depiction of an unspecified holy rider and inscription with Psalm 90/91. Reportedly found near Tyre (west Phoenicia). Probably late antique.
E01778Greek inscription on a lintel, invoking the protection of the Trinity for a house, through the intercession of a saint, probably *Zakchaios (martyr of Antioch, S00795). Found at Kapernabou, to the east of Antioch-on-the-Orontes (Syria). Dated 504/505.
E01885Greek inscription invoking the protection of God for a tower, through the intercession of *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033) and of *All Saints (S01151). Found at Qaṣr el-Mouḥarram near Apamea on the Orontes (central Syria). Dated 551.
E02051Floor-mosaics with Greek inscriptions commemorating the completion and paving of a church (naos) dedicated to *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033) in 533, and the restoration of the mosaics in 582. Also the help of the God of Mary and of *All Saints (S01151) is invoked. Found at Riḥāb, between Bostra and Gerasa/Jerash (Jordan/the Roman province of Arabia).
E02077Greek letter concerning vegetable seeds and gardening issues of unknown Egyptian provenance, employing an epistolary formula expressing hope for the help of God and the saints (unnamed, S00518), datable to the early 6th century.
E02130Greek order from Oxyrhynchos (Middle Egypt) for the supply of wine to widows of the church 'of Ptoleminos', named after the founder of the institution, datable to the 5th/6th century.
E02227Coptic private letter from Hermopolis (Middle Egypt), sent from a monk to a comes with intent to console him in his illness, contemplating the sufferings of the *saints (unnamed, S00518) and their ability to heal on account of their purity, as well as on *Iob (Old Testament patriarch, S01191) whose suffering was rewarded; datable to the 7th century.
E02280Gregory of Tours, in his Histories (8.14), recounts how relics he was carrying, of *Martin (ascetic and bishop of Tours, ob. 397, S00050) and other unnamed saints, prevented the boat he was in from sinking; in Coblenz (north-east Gaul), in 585. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 585/594.
E02281Gregory of Tours, in his Histories (8.15), recounts his visit in 585 to the monastic church, built by the deacon Vulfilaicus near the fortress of Carignan (north-east Gaul), illustrious for its relics of *Martin (ascetic and bishop of Tours, ob. 397, S00050) and other unnamed saints. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 585/594.
E02285Greek amulet from Oxyrhynchos (Middle Egypt), invoking the help of *Mary (Μother of Christ, S00033), *John (the Εvangelist, S00042), *Serenos/Sirenos (probably a martyr of Oxyrhynchos, S00134), *Philoxenos (saint with cult at Oxyrhynchos, S00443), *Viktor (presumably the Egyptian martyr, son of Romanos, S00749), *Ioustos/Justus (presumably the soldier and martyr of Antinoopolis, S01172), and all saints (S01151), datable to the 5th century.
E02285Greek amulet from Oxyrhynchos (Middle Egypt), invoking the help of *Mary (Μother of Christ, S00033), *John (the Εvangelist, S00042), *Serenos/Sirenos (probably a martyr of Oxyrhynchos, S00134), *Philoxenos (saint with cult at Oxyrhynchos, S00443), *Viktor (presumably the Egyptian martyr, son of Romanos, S00749), *Ioustos/Justus (presumably the soldier and martyr of Antinoopolis, S01172), and all saints (S01151), datable to the 5th century.
E02320Gregory of Tours, in his Histories (8.30), recounts how in 585 military commanders of King Guntram, whose troops had ravaged the area around Clermont, sought sanctuary from the king's wrath in Autun (central Gaul), in the church of *Symphorianus (martyr of Autun, S00322). Guntram condemns their evil actions, which had included the scattering and destruction of relics of the saints. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 585/594.
E02334Gregory of Tours, in his Histories (9.12), mentions a church of *Martin (ascetic and bishop of Tours, ob. 397, S00050) in Fresnes-en-Woëvre (north-east Gaul), where in 587 two Frankish rebels sought sanctuary. One of these, later seeks sanctuary in an oratory with relics, inside the bishop's house of Verdun (north-east Gaul), and is murdered there. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 587/594.
E02387Gregory of Tours, in his Histories (10.29), gives an account of the life, miracles and death, in 591, of *Aredius (monastic founder in the Limousin, ob. 591, S00302). He builds churches to unnamed saints (S00518), provides them with relics, and founds a monastery in the Limousin (western Gaul). Gregory describes several of his miracles, and refers to his own writings for further miracles of Aredius, performed through the power of *Julian (martyr of Brioude, S00035) and *Martin (ascetic and bishop of Tours, ob. 397, S00050); he bequeaths his possessions to the churches of Martin in Tours and *Hilary (bishop of Poitiers, ob. 367, S00183) in Poitiers; three women are cured at his funeral. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 591/594.
E02419Gregory of Tours, in his Histories (10.31), recounts how he, the nineteenth bishop of Tours, sought relics of the *Theban Legion (soldiers and martyrs of Agaunum, S00339), which he had been told were in Tours; found the reliquary with their relics and the relics of unnamed martyrs and saints in the church of *Martin (ascetic and bishop of Tours, ob. 397, S00050); kept vigils and masses to honour the saints; placed some of these relics in the cathedral of Tours; placed relics of *Cosmas and Damianus (brothers, physician martyrs of Syria, S00385) in Martin’s cell adjoining the cathedral; decorated the walls of Martin’s church; built the new baptistery there and placed in it relics of *John the Baptist (S00020) and *Sergius (soldier and martyr of Rusafa, S00023); placed relics of *Benignus (martyr of Dijon, S00320) in the old baptistery at Martin's church; and wrote seven books of Miracles and The Life of the Fathers; all in 573-594. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 591/594.
E02448Gregory of Tours writes the Glory of the Confessors, in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 587/588. Overview entry.
E02450Fragments of a Coptic Encomion with Life and Miracles of Apa *Moyses/Moses of Abydos (S01478) relating the saint's various visions, his clairvoyance and healing powers, mentioning his celebration of the feast day of Apa *Shenoute of Atripe (abbot of the White Monastery, ob. c. 465, S00688) and his general request that Saints' (S00518) feast days are to be observed; written probably in the 6th/7th c.
E02600Greek inscription probably invoking the intercession of unnamed saints. Found at Umm al-Jimāl, to the southwest of Bostra (Roman province of Arabia/Jordan). Probably 5th-7th c.
E02640Gregory of Tours, in his Glory of the Confessors (51), tells of *Three priests (S02845) buried in the village of Aire-sur-l'Ardour (south-west Gaul), whose graves effect miracles and are slowly rising out of the ground. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 587/588.
E02690Gregory of Tours, in his Glory of the Confessors (72), tells of the cemetery at Autun (central Gaul) where the holy dead are heard singing psalms; two men saw these souls in the adjacent church of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) and were warned by one of them to leave the town; the one who didn't do so died. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 587/588.
E02848A Coptic Discourse of Shenoute (abbot of the White Monastery near Sohag in Upper Egypt) referring to saints and martyrs as role models for Christian leaders; written in the 5th century.
E02849A Coptic Discourse of Shenoute (abbot of the White Monastery near Sohag in Upper Egypt) referring to the saints as allies of those without sin; written in the 5th century.
E02850A Coptic Discourse of Shenoute (abbot of the White Monastery near Sohag in Upper Egypt) referring to the saints as judges; written in the 5th century.
E02851A Coptic Discourse of Shenoute, (abbot of the White Monastery near Sohag in Upper Egypt), referring to the saints as judges by their own standards, written in the 5th century.
E02899Lead seals of officials and ecclesiastics, decorated with images of saints, mainly *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), including a seal of the Nea Church in Jerusalem, dedicated to Mary. All found at Caesarea Maritima (Roman province of Palaestina I). Probably 6th-7th c.
E02927Coptic Sermon On Vigilance by Besa (abbot of the White Monastery near Sohag in Upper Egypt), referring to the saints as examples to follow in order to ensure lasting protection through Christ, written in the late 5th century.
E02928Coptic Sermon On Transgressing the Laws of God by Besa (abbot of the White Monastery near Sohag in Upper Egypt), pronouncing the grief of the saints that will descend on those who commit crime or misbehave, written in the late 5th century.
E02929Coptic Sermon On Individual Responsibility for Sin by Besa (abbot of the White Monastery near Sohag in Upper Egypt), claiming that the saints cannot do anything for sinners who do not repent, written in the late 5th century.
E02930Coptic Letter To an Erring Monk written by Besa (abbot of the White Monastery near Sohag in Upper Egypt), referring to the monastery as a house of God and vineyard of the saints, written in the late 5th century.
E02931Coptic Letter To Herai written by Besa (abbot of the White Monastery near Sohag in Upper Egypt), quoting *Antony ('the Great', monk of Egypt, ob. 356, S00098) saying that neglectful behaviour in ascetics pains the saints, and claiming that Herai as a nun had already been counted among the saints, written in the late 5th century.
E02963Lead seals: of the emperor Phocas and of local notables, perhaps all from Askalon (Roman province of Palaestina I). Five are decorated with images of *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), one of an unnamed orant saint, and one probably bears an invocation of *Mary. Probably 6th-7th c.
E02968The North-West Church at Hippos/Sussita (Roman province of Palaestina II) provides us with important archaeological evidence for the cult of saints. The finds from its south pastophorion (apparently a martyr's chapel), north apse, and an annexed room include a sealed reliquary with a metal rod for contact with the relics within, a flask with bone fragments, a lamp holder, etc. Probably 6th-7th c.
E03010Floor-mosaic with a Greek inscription commemorating the laying-out of a mosaic in the baptistery of the church at Jabaliya, 3 km to the northwest of Gaza (Roman province of Palaestina I), as an act of thanksgiving to God and unnamed saints. Probably 549.
E03011Greek epitaph for a woman described as 'servant of Christ and the saints'. Recorded at Gaza; reportedly found at Askalon (Roman province of Palaestina I). Dated, but by an era as yet unidentified.
E03562Floor-mosaics with inscriptions invoking *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) and the God of St. Stephen, and mentioning a bishop involved in the embellishment of places of saintly cult. Found at Ḥorvat Be’er-Shema/Khirbet el-Far (probably ancient Birsama/Bersamon) in the northwestern Negev, between Gaza and Elousa, close to Beersheva; Roman province of Palaestina I). Probably late 5th - early 6th c.
E04019Red limestone reliquary with multiple compartments, found in the chancel of the South-West Church at Hippos/Sussita (Roman province of Palaestina II). Probably late 6th-early 7th c.
E04045Floor-mosaic with a Greek inscription invoking the protection of Christ 'through the faith of the (First?) Saints'. Found at Khirbet Samra on the east shore of the sea of Galilee, near Gadara (Roman province of Palaestina II). Probably 5th-7th c.
E04076Coptic Letter from the monastery of Apa Apollo at Bawit (Middle Egypt), concerning a matter involving an unnamed saint (S00518); datable to the 8th century.
E04096Coptic letter from the monastery of Apa Apollo at Bawit (Middle Egypt), asking a member of the monastery to arrange for two garments to be sent and to act mercifully, to ensure the blessing of the saints (unnamed, S00518); datable to the 8th century.
E04120Three floor-mosaics with Greek inscriptions invoking the intercession of unnamed saints and 'All Saints'. Found at the monastery on Tell Iztabba at Beit She'an/Skythopolis (Roman province of Palaestina II). Probably second half of the 6th c.
E04124Bronze censer with a dedicatory Greek inscription invoking *Jeremiah (possibly the Old Testament prophet, S01421), *Kyrikos (probably the child martyr of Tarsus, S00007), and other unnamed saints. Provenance unknown, probably the Roman provinces of Palestine or Arabia. Now in Jerusalem. Probably 6th c.
E04140Coptic ostracon from Hermonthis (Upper Egypt), with an invocation to saints (unnamed, S00518) to entreat the Lord for mercy; datable to the 7th/8th century.
E04143Coptic ostracon from Edfu/Apollonopolis (Upper Egypt) with a letter mentioning a saint (unnamed, S00518); datable to the 7th century.
E04173Coptic ostracon from western Thebes (Upper Egypt) with a letter invoking *Sergios (perhaps the soldier and martyr of Rusafa, S00023) and *Mark (presumably the Evangelist, S00293), as well as all the saints (S00518) for protection; datable to the first half of the 8th century.
E04175Coptic ostracon from western Thebes (Upper Egypt) with a letter addressing a living saint (S00518); datable to the first half of the 8th century.
E04180Coptic ostracon from western Thebes (Upper Egypt) with a letter mentioning a feast to be celebrated in a desert shrine of an unmentioned saint (S00518); datable to the first half of the 8th century.
E04181Coptic ostracon from western Thebes (Upper Egypt) with a letter mention the copying of books for a monastery/shrine (topos) of an unnamed saint (S00518); datable to the first half of the 8th century.
E04284Fragmentary painted inscription in Greek, invoking the intercession of *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), and of unnamed saints. Found in the late antique church at Khirbat edh-Dharih to the northwest of Petra and Arindela (Roman province of Palaestina III/south Jordan). Probably 6th c.
E04343Greek inscriptions/graffiti invoking the God of *All Saints, the intercession of *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), *Sergios (soldier and martyr of Rusafa, S00023), *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), probably the *Forty Martyrs (of Sebasteia, S00103, or of the Sinai Desert, S01620), and saints whose names are lost. Found in Room 7 at the North Church at Nessana/Auja Hafir in the Negev desert (Roman province of Palaestina III). Probably 5th-7th c.
E04344Greek inscriptions/graffiti invoking the help of *Sergios (soldier and martyr of Rusafa, S00023), of the God of *Sergios, and of a saint whose name is lost. Found in the north and east complexes at the North Church of Nessana/Auja Hafir in the Negev desert (Roman province of Palaestina III). Probably 6th-7th c.
E04408Coptic letter from Kellis (Dakhleh Oasis) mentioning a kingdom of the saints (unnamed); datable to the 4th century.
E04409Coptic fragment of a hortatory sermon from Bala’izah (Upper Egypt), claiming that the death of the saints (S00518) is a precious incident; the text also suggests resting at their (burial) ‘place’ to commemorate them; datable to the 6th century.
E04426Coptic Graffiti from the monastery of Epiphanios at Thebes (Upper Egypt), invoking the intercession of *Epiphanios (S00093) and the saints in general (unnamed, S00518) in general; datable to the first half of the 7th century.
E04453Greek dedicatory inscription, commemorating the donation of a wall to a church, as an act of thanksgiving to God and unnamed saints. Found at Bargylia (Caria, western Asia Minor). Probably 5th or 6th c.
E04645Latin epitaph for a woman, saying that she ‘will live with (unnamed) saints.’ Found in the 'crypt of Saint Cornelius,' at the Cemetery of Callixtus, via Appia (Rome). Probably third quarter of the 3rd c.
E04647Latin epitaph for a woman, saying that she lives ‘among saints.’ Found in the 'crypt of Saint Cornelius,' at the Cemetery of Callixtus, via Appia (Rome). Probably 3rd c.
E04661Latin and Greek graffiti with invocations of *Balbina (virgin and martyr of Rome, S01849), naming one of the supplicants her alumnus, of *Xystus/Sixtus II (bishop and martyr of Rome, S00201), and of unnamed 'holy spirits' (presumably martyrs). On a wall at the entrance to the 'crypt of the popes,' Cemetery of Callixtus, via Appia, Rome. Probably second half of the 4th - first half of the 5th c.
E04663Latin and Greek graffiti with invocations of Xystus/Sixtus II (bishop and martyr of Rome, S00201), and probably other deceased popes and martyrs. One of the texts mentions Jerusalem as the 'city of martyrs.' On a wall at the entrance to the 'crypt of the popes,' Cemetery of Callixtus, via Appia, Rome. Probably second half of the 4th - early 8th c.
E04682Latin graffiti with an invocation of unnamed holy spirits, probably the souls of popes and martyrs buried in the cemetery of Callixtus, and perhaps an invocation of *Xystus/Sixtus II (bishop and martyr of Rome, S00201). Found in the lower part of that cemetery. Via Appia, Rome. Proably late 4th-early 5th c.
E04683Latin graffito with an invocation of the holy spirits of unnamed martyrs, probably the souls of popes and martyrs buried in the cemetery of Callixtus. Found in the lower part of that cemetery, via Appia, Rome. Probably late 4th-early 5th c.
E04695Epitaph for a woman, possibly denoting a burial ad sanctos. Found in the lower part of the cemetery of Callixtus, via Appia, Rome. Probably 4th c.
E04696Epitaph for a mother and son, probably denoting a burial ad sanctos. Found in the lower part of the cemetery of Callixtus, via Appia, Rome. Probably 4th c.
E04733Two fragments of Latin epitaphs probably expressing a wish that the deceased would live 'among the saints,' or saying that they were buried 'among saints' (possible references to burials ad sanctos). Found in the lower part of the Cemetery of Callixtus, via Appia, Rome. Probably 5th c.
E04735Two fragments of Latin epitaphs recording burials ad martyres /ad sanctos. Found in the lower part of the Cemetery of Callixtus, via Appia, Rome. Probably 5th c.
E04736Small fragment of a Latin inscription mentioning 'saints.' Possibly referring to a burial ad sanctos, or an epitaph for local martyrs. Found in the lower part of the Cemetery of Callixtus, via Appia, Rome. Probably 5th c.
E04737Fragmentary Greek epitaph recording a burial ‘with the saints’. Found in the lower part of the Cemetery of Callixtus, via Appia, Rome. Probably late 3rd c.
E04771Latin epitaph for a reader (lector) saying that he will rest in peace with unnamed saints ‘as he merited', just possibly *Marcus and Marcellianus (twin brothers, deacons and martyrs of Rome, buried on the via Ardeatina, S01401), or the *Greek Martyrs of Rome (S01873). Found in a cemetery on the via Appia, Rome. Probably second half of the 5th c.
E05108Fragmentary Latin epitaph for a woman ‘united with saints’, probably recording a burial ad sanctos. Found at the cemetery ‘ad Catacumbas’, near the church of S. Sebastiano/Basilica Apostolorum, via Appia, Rome. Probably second half of the 4th c.
E05112Coptic Martyrdom of *Viktor (son of Romanos, S00749), the second Martyrdom, relating the saint’s imprisonment and trial at Alexandria under Armenios, his tortures and miraculous recoveries, a journey into heaven to be greeted by the saints, as well as his eventual transport to the south of Egypt for further trial south of Antinoopolis (Middle Egypt); written presumably in the 6th/7th century.
E05118Coptic Sermon on the proper way of monastic life (Asketikon) by Apa Ephraim, presumably the ascetic and founder of a monastery at Fargout, mentioning the saints as witnesses on the day of judgement; presumably written in the early 6th century.
E05120Coptic Life of *John, the monk (S01944), relating his escape as a young man from his rich home in Rome to join a monastery where he was torturing and destroying his body through severe asceticism, returning to Rome years later to live as a beggar at the gateway of his parents’ house. When he died they built him a shrine (martyrion) at that spot; written most likely during the 6th century.
E05121Coptic Encomion on *Abbaton, the Angel of Death (S01947), attributed to Timothy, the archbishop of Alexandria (AD 381–384), delivered on the feast day of Abbaton, relating how Timothy visited the shrine (martyrion) of *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033) in the Valley of Iosaphat, and how he obtained a book from the library at Jerusalem in which Christ relates the reason for God’s creation of Abbaton to his disciples, from which he then reads or cites to the congregation, explaining to them that honouring the saints is a service to God; written allegedly in the late 4th century.
E05135Latin epitaph invoking the company of the 'holy spirits'/spirita sancta for the deceased. Found in the Cemetery of Praetextatus, via Appia, Rome. Dated 291.
E05158Fragmentary Latin epitaph for a former imperial agent (agens in rebus) possibly containing a reference to his burial 'among saints'. Found in the Cemetery of Praetextatus, via Appia, Rome. Late antique.
E05159Fragmentary Latin inscription expressing the hope that Christians will be saved from evil 'through the holy martyrs'. Found in the Cemetery of Praetextatus, via Appia, Rome. Probably late antique.
E05160Fragmentary Latin inscription invoking the 'holy spirits'/spirita sancta, probably of saints and martyrs. Found in the Cemetery of Praetextatus, via Appia, Rome. Late antique.
E05162Very fragmentary inscription possibly referring to the 'holy spirits'/spirita sancta, or to a female saint whose name is lost. Found in the Cemetery of Praetextatus, via Appia, Rome. Late antique.
E05163Fragmentary Latin epitaph with a tentatively restored formula invoking the 'peace with (unnamed) saints' to the deceased. Found in a small cemetery 'ad Vibiam' on the via Appia, Rome. Late antique.
E05163Fragmentary Latin epitaph with a tentatively restored formula invoking the 'peace with (unnamed) saints' to the deceased. Found in a small cemetery 'ad Vibiam' on the via Appia, Rome. Late antique.
E05170Latin epitaph, with Greek elements, for a boy whose soul is 'with the saints'. Found in the cemetery 'in vinea Eustachiorum', via Latina, Rome. Probably 4th c.
E05219Latin epitaph for a girl buried 'with saints'. Found in the Cemetery of Castulus, via Labicana, Rome. Probably 4th c.
E05235Latin epitaph with the pagan formula dis manibus sacrum, but generally considered Christian, invoking the holy spirits /spirita sancta on behalf of a deceased boy. Found in the cemetery of Castulus, via Labicana, Rome. Probably 4th c.
E05271Latin and Greek graffiti and epitaphs with invocations to unnamed saints and martyrs, holy spirits/spirita sancta, and saints whose names are lost. Found in the cemetery ad Sanctos Marcellinum et Petrum /inter duas lauros, via Labicana, Rome. Probably 4th-6th c.
E05276The Coptic Life of *Samuel of Kalamun (monk, monastic founder and healing saint, S01991), presented by Isaak, a monk and priest at the monastery of *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033) founded by Samuel at Kalamun (in the Fayum) on the saint’s feast day, relating his asceticism and sanctity, his visions of angels, his special bond with the Virgin Mary to whom he dedicated his monastic church, his gift of prophecy, and his miraculous healing powers, referring to the ascetic as a martyr without being beheaded; presumably written in the later 8th c.
E05280Very fragmentary inscription, possibly referring to relics of unnamed saints. Found in a small cemetery near the cemetery of Callixtus, via Appia, Rome. Late antique.
E05308Fragmentary Latin epitaph with an invocation of a female saint whose name is lost, and possibly of unnamed martyrs, asked to accept the soul of the deceased. Found in the ager Veranus, via Tiburtina, Rome. Probably from the cemetery of Cyriaca. Probably late 4th – early 5th c.
E05310Latin graffito with an invocation, probably of unnamed saints or martyrs, on behalf of a deceased man. Found in the cemetery of Cyriaca ad Sanctum Laurentium, via Tiburtina, Rome. Probably second half of the 4th c.
E05311Fragmentary Latin epitaph saying that the deceased enjoys the company of unnamed saints in her afterlife. Found in the cemetery of Cyriaca ad Sanctum Laurentium, via Tiburtina, Rome. Probably 5th c.
E05312Latin inscription recording the purchase of a tomb sited 'in the new crypt, behind the saints (in crypta nova, retro sanctos)' by two women. Found in the cemetery of Cyriaca ad Sanctum Laurentium, via Tiburtina, Rome. Probably second half of the 4th - first half of the 5th c.
E05313Very small fragment of a Latin epitaph, probably mentioning ‘holy spirits’/spirita sancta. Found in the cemetery of Cyriaca ad Sanctum Laurentium, via Tiburtina, Rome. Probably second 4th c.
E05334Fragmentary Latin inscription, possibly from an altar, probably with a poem referring to something located near 'blessed bones'/ossa beata. Found in the ager Veranus, via Tiburtina, Rome. Probably from the cemetery of Cyriaca. Probably 5th or 6th c.
E05359Latin epitaph invoking the holy spirits/spirita sancta on behalf of a deceased girl. Found in the cemetery of Novatianus on the via Tiburtina, Rome. Probably 3rd or 4th c.
E05372Coptic Martyrdom of Apa *Til (S02024), a young soldier from the village Sabarou (Lower Egypt) stationed at the garrison in Babylon (Lower Egypt) during the time of Diocletian, presented on his feast day (10 July) relating many miracles and visions which the saint encountered as well as numerous healing miracles he performed while imprisoned, others taking place later at the burial shrine in his home town; written most likely during the 6th/7th century.
E05373Hypatius, bishop of Ephesus, in a letter to a fellow bishop defends the use of icons of Christ and the saints for the sake of teaching the uneducated, even if that means a certain compromise on the scriptural prohibition against images. Written in Greek at Ephesus, in the early 6th c..
E05440Coptic inscription from Wadi Sarga (Upper Egypt), with an invocation of all the *Saints (S01151); datable to the 7th/8th century.
E05555Venantius Fortunatus writes eleven books of Poems in Latin, mainly in western and north-western Gaul, 565/600; many of them with reference to saints. Overview entry.
E05686Venantius Fortunatus, in a poem (3.12) about a castle on the Moselle built by Nicetius, bishop of Trier (north-east Gaul), tells of a tower that may have contained relics of saints; AD 525/566. Written in Latin in Gaul, 565/566.
E05712Pope Pelagius II, in a letter of 580 to Bishop Aunacharius of Auxerre (central Gaul), says that he is sending relics of unnamed saints to Aunacharius and to one of the kings of the Franks. Written in Latin, at Rome.
E05839Ruricius of Limoges in two letters (Letters 1.7 and 1.14) refers to the rites or festivals (sollemnitates) of unnamed saints. Written in Latin at Limoges (central Gaul), in the late 5th c.
E05845Constantius of Lyon, in his Life of *Germanus (bishop of Auxerre, ob. c. 448, S00455), states that Germanus always wore a capsule (capsula) around his neck containing relics of the saints. Written in Latin at Lyon (central Gaul) between c. 460 and c. 480.
E05881Constantius of Lyon, in his Life of *Germanus (bishop of Auxerre, ob. c. 448, S00455), recounts how the saint used the capsule (capsula) of relics he wore around his neck to heal a blind girl during his visit to Britain in 429. Written in Latin at Lyon (central Gaul) between c. 460 and c. 480.
E05999Coptic ostracon from the region of Jeme (Upper Egypt) with an oath sworn in the shrine of an *unnamed saint (saints unnamed, S00518), testifying by the power of the shrine (topos) and in the presence of a village official to settle a financial dispute; datable to the 7th century.
E06131Tírechán's Collection records diverse baptisms, ordinations, ecclesiastical foundations and miracles of *Patrick (missionary and bishop of Ireland, 5th c., S01962). Written in Latin in Ireland, probably shortly after c. 668. Overview entry
E06145A substantially authentic Merovingian royal diploma in the name of Theuderic III, king of the Franks, records a dispute over a women's monastery in Tuffé (north-west Gaul) dedicated to *Mary (mother of Christ, S00033) and other *unnamed saints (S00518). Written in Latin, probably at Compiègne (north-east Gaul), 677.
E06226Two authentic Merovingian royal diplomas record the foundation by Sigebert III, king of the Franks, of the monasteries at Stavelot and Malmedy (north-east Gaul) dedicated to, and holding relics of, *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), *John (either the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle, S00042), *Martin (ascetic and bishop of Tours, ob. 397, S00050), and other *unnamed saints (S00518); and their later confirmation by Theuderic III, king of the Franks, who also speaks of a dedication to *Mary (mother of Christ, S00033). Written in Latin in Gaul, 643/7-679/91.
E06227A substantially authentic Merovingian royal diploma records the immunity confirmed by Clovis III, king of the Franks, to the monastery at Sithiu (now Saint-Bertin) (north-east Gaul) dedicated to *Mary (mother of Christ, S00033), the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008), and other *unnamed saints (S00518). Written in Latin in Gaul, 692.
E06228A substantially authentic Merovingian royal diploma records the immunity confirmed by Theuderic III, king of the Franks, to the monastery at Montier-en-Der (north-east Gaul) dedicated to the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008), and other *unnamed saints (S00518). Written in Latin, probably at Compiègne (north-east Gaul), 685.
E06230An authentic Merovingian royal diploma records the immunity confirmed by Childebert III, king of the Franks, for the monastery at Fossatus (now Saint-Maur-des-Fossés) (northern Gaul) dedicated to *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), *Mary (mother of Christ, S00033) and other *unnamed saints (S00518). Written in Latin in Gaul, 694/711.
E06232The Formulary of Marculf includes a template for a charter with which to found a monastery or oratory dedicated to *Mary (mother of Christ, S00033), or alternatively another saint. Written in Latin in Gaul, probably c. 650/730.
E06256Tírechán, in his Collection, describes how *Patrick (missionary and bishop of Ireland, 5th c., S01962) gave Bishop Olcanus relics of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008) and other *unnamed saints (S00518), which he wrapped in a veil. Written in Latin in Ireland, probably shortly after c. 668.
E06266The Life of Lady *Balthild (queen of the Franks, ob. 680, S02359) records the saint's life, death, and one posthumous miracle. Written in Latin in Gaul, possibly at the monastery at Chelles (near Paris), 680/690. Overview entry
E06275The Life of *Audoin, Bishop of Rouen (also known as Dado, ob. 686, S02199) records the saint's life, death, translation and miracles, as well as his journeys to Rome and Cologne to collect the relics of other (unnamed) saints. Written in Latin in Gaul, probably in Neustria (northern Francia), c. 700.
E06283The Life of *Caesarius (bishop of Arles, ob. 542, S00491), records in two books the bishop's life, miracles (several through objects that had been in contact with the saint), and death. Several churches and feasts in Arles are mentioned. Written in Latin by five clerics of the ecclesiastical province of Arles (southern Gaul), 542/5.
E06314On the Death and Burial of *Foillan (abbot of Fosses, ob. c. 650/55, S02399), also known as the Nivelles Supplement to the Life of Fursey, records the saint's escape from East Anglia (south-east Britain), and his murder and ceremonial burial in north-east Francia. Written in Latin, probably at Nivelles (north-east Gaul), c. 653/7.
E06317The Life of *Gertrude (abbess of Nivelles, ob. 659, S02402) records the saint's life, death and burial, and attributes one specific miracle to her. Written in Latin, probably at Nivelles (north-east Gaul), c. 670.
E06348Gregory the Great in a papal letter (Register 4.8) of 593, to Januarius, bishop of Cagliari in Sardinia, asks him to ensure that some relics are placed in a monastery in Cagliari with due veneration. Written in Latin in Rome.
E06354Gregory the Great in a papal letter (Register 5.15) of 594, to Iohannes, bishop of Ravenna (northern Italy), refers to John's predecessors' use of the pallium outside the church of Ravenna when relics were being deposited. Written in Latin in Rome.
E06414Gregory the Great in a papal letter (Register 11.5) of 600, to Adeodata, a noblewoman, refers to her request for unspecified relics. Written in Latin in Rome.
E06416Gregory the Great in a papal letter (Register 11.13) of 600, to Januarius, bishop of Cagliari, refers to the deposition of unspecified relics in a monastery, presumably in Cagliari (Sardinia). Written in Latin in Rome.
E06420Gregory the Great in a papal letter (Register 11.20) of 601, to Marianus, a bishop of Arabia (probably of Gerasa, in present-day Jordan), refers to the bearer of the letter’s successful quest for (unspecified) relics. Written in Latin in Rome.
E06462The first Martyrdom of *Leudegar (bishop and martyr of Autun, ob. 677/9, S02098) records the saint's life, martyrdom, miracles, and early cult. Written in Latin at Autun (eastern Gaul), 680/84.
E06552Aldhelm, in his prose On Virginity, names *Silvester (bishop of Rome, ob. 336, S00397) as an exemplary virgin who, among other acts, was instrumental in the foundation of Constantinople, where there are many 'temples' built in honour of *saints (S00518). Written in Latin in southern Britain, for the nuns at the monastery at Barking (south-east Britain), c. 675/686.
E06881Pope Martin I, in a letter of 649 to Amandus, bishop of Maastricht (north-east Gaul), refers to relics of unnamed saints that he is giving the bishop. Written in Latin in Rome.
E06933The Book of the Angel outlines the privileges of the church at Armagh (north-east Ireland) associated with *Patrick (missionary and bishop of Ireland, 5th c., S01962), based in part on the honour due to (its relics of) *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), and *Laurence (deacon and martyr of Rome, S00037), as well as a relic of the blood of Christ. An addendum delineates the relationship between the churches in Ireland of Patrick and those of *Brigit (abbess of Kildare, ob. c. 525, S01885). Written in Latin at Armagh, perhaps as early as c. 640/60.
E07075In the Life of Lady *Balthild (queen of the Franks, ob. 680, S02359), the author recalls how Queen Clotild, the wife of Clovis, founded a church dedicated to *Peter (the Apostle, S00036) in Paris; a monastery dedicated to *George (soldier and martyr, S00259) at Chelles (near Paris); and other churches dedicated to saints (here unnamed). Written in Latin in Gaul, possibly at the monastery at Chelles, 680/90.
E07431The Penitential of Finnian refers to 'basilicas of the saints' in Ireland, which the clergy have an obligation to serve. Written in Latin in Ireland, c. 550/91.
E07471Fragmentary Latin inscription commemorating a dedication to unnamed saints, probably *Alexander and *Eventius (bishop and priest, martyrs of Rome, S00127). Found in the cemetery of Saint Alexander on the via Nomentana, Rome. Probably 5th or 6th c. [provisional entry]
E07474Latin verse inscription in two elegiac couplets deploring sacrilegious damage by barbarians to unnamed 'well-deserved ones (meriti)'. Now lost, but probably from the cemetery of Saint Alexander on the via Nomentana, Rome. Probably mid- or second half of the 6th c., possibly 537-555. [provisional entry]
E07478Latin epitaph just possibly referring to five saints. Probably from a cemetery on the via Nomentana, Rome. Possibly 3rd c. [provisional entry]
E07480Latin verse inscription praising pope Siricius (384-399) as a generous restorer of tombs of unnamed martyrs. Now lost, but probably displayed in the Cemetery of Priscilla, or elsewhere on the via Salaria, Rome. [provisional entry]
E07492Latin epitaph in verse praising a deceased woman and her unnamed husband, and naming 'faith' a 'friend of the saints', and the most sure way to Heavens. Now lost, but probably displayed in the Cemetery of Priscilla, or elsewhere on the via Salaria, Rome. Probably 4th c. [provisional entry]
E07494Very fragmentary Latin inscription just possibly referring to relics of unnamed saints. Found in the Cemetery of Priscilla on the via Salaria, Rome. Probably first half of the 4th c. [provisional entry]
E07495Greek epitaph for a woman resting 'in peace, with (unnamed) saints'. Found in the Cemetery of Priscilla on the via Salaria, Rome. Probably late 3rd/early 4th c. [provisional entry]
E07498Latin epitaph for a woman who was arguably buried ad sanctos. Found in the cemetery of Feilicitas/Cemetery of Maximus on the via Salaria, Rome. Dated 390. [provisional entry, description needed]
E07514Latin epitaph describing the deceased as resting 'in peace, with the saints', possibly referring to a burial ad sanctos. Now lost, but seen in the cemeteries on the via Salaria, Rome. Probably late 3rd/early 4th c. [provisional entry]
E07561Caesarius, bishop of Arles, in hisSermon 47, Another warning against the evil of drunkenness, inveighs against those who drink to angels and saints, thinking they are honouring them. Written in Latin at Arles (southern Gaul), 503/542.
E07562Caesarius, bishop of Arles, in two sermons (Sermons 13 and 55), inveighs against those who attend the feasts of saints only in order to drink, sing and dance. Written in Latin at Arles (southern Gaul), 503/542.
E07615Jonas' Lives of *Columbanus (monk and missionary in Ireland, Gaul and Italy, ob. 615, S01983) and his Disciples records the life, miracles and death of the saint, followed by accounts of miracles performed through *Athala (second abbot of Bobbio (northern Italy), ob. 625/6 S01948), *Eustasius (second abbot of Luxeuil (eastern Gaul), ob. 629, S02255) and *Bertulf (third abbot of Bobbio, ob. 639, S02828), together with those that took place among the nuns of Faremoutiers (northern Gaul). Written in Latin, possibly at Marchiennes (north-east Gaul), 642/3.
E07666On the Miracles which Took Place after the Death of the Blessed Abbess *Gertrude (of Nivelles, ob. 659, S02402) supplements her early Life with nine miracle stories, many involving the bed on which she died. Written in Latin, probably at Nivelles (north-east Gaul), 691/c.700.
E07691The Frankish courtier Gogo, in a letter to Bishop Peter of Metz (Austrasian Letter 22), praises an unnamed man, possibly Peter himself, for constantly visiting the shrines of the saints. Written in Latin in northern or eastern Gaul, 565/581.
E07770Gregory of Tours, in his Histories (6.27), states that when King Chilperic went to Paris at Easter 583, he sent the relics of many unnamed saints to the city, to avoid a curse pronounced in an agreement with his brothers that none of them should enter Paris without the permission of the others. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 583/594.
E07779Gregory of Tours, in his Histories (8.2), describes how King Guntram, after visiting the shrines of several unnamed saints (S00518), came to his lodging in Orléans (north-west Gaul), near the church of *Avitus (abbot of Le Perche, ob. c. 525, S01307) and was given bread from the mass for *Martin (ascetic and bishop of Tours, ob. 397, S00050), 5 July 585. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 586/594.
E07784Gregory of Tours, in his Histories (10.1), mentions that in 590/591 his deacon returned from Rome with relics of unnamed saints, given him by Pope Gregory. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 590/594.