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The Cult of Saints in Late Antiquity


from its origins to circa AD 700, across the entire Christian world


Name

John, the Apostle and Evangelist

Saint ID

S00042

Number in BH

BHG 899-932; BHL 4316-4328

Reported Death Not Before

90

Reported Death Not After

120

Gender
Male
Type of Saint
Twelve Apostles and Paul, Evangelists, Miracle-workers in lifetime, Writers
Related Evidence Records
IDTitle
E00053Gregory of Tours, in his Life of *Gregory (bishop of Langres, ob. 539/540, S00038), recounts how, on the saint's death in Langres, his body was taken to Dijon for burial in the church of *John (presumably either the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042); all in eastern Gaul. From Gregory's Life of the Fathers, written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 573/594.
E00055Gregory of Tours, in his Life of *Gregory (bishop of Langres, ob. 539/540, S00038), tells how, with accompanying miracles, the body of the saint was moved to a newly built apse in the church of *John (presumably either the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist S00042) in Dijon (eastern Gaul) by his son and successor as bishop of Langres. From Gregory's Life of the Fathers, written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 573/594.
E00160Greek private letter, from Oxyrhynchos (Middle Egypt) concerned with greetings and the transport of goods, providing a list of five saints to be invoked on the sender’s behalf: *John (presumably either the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042), *Euphemia (martyr of Chalcedon, S00017), *Menas (soldier and martyr of Abu Mena, S00073), *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), and *Ioulianos (probably the martyr of Cilicia, S00305), datable to the 4th/5th c.
E00164Greek Calendar of Church Services to be performed at different churches in Oxyrhynchus (Middle Egypt) from the end of October to the end of March of the years 535–536, providing information on the names of many churches, and on the saints’ days celebrated in the city.
E00173Eusebius of Caesarea, in his Ecclesiastical History, gathers information about *James ('brother of the Lord', S00058) whom he presents as the first bishop of Jerusalem, ascetic and martyr. Written in Greek in Palestine in 311/325, quoting the 2nd century Christian authors Clement of Alexandria and Hegesippus.
E00218Eusebius of Caesarea, in his Ecclesiastical History (3.31.2-5), quotes letters from Polykrates, bishop of Ephesos, and from the Montanist leader Proklos (both late 2nd c.), which mention the tombs of *John (the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042) at Ephesus (western Asia Minor) and of *Philip (the Apostle, S00109) at Hierapolis of Phrygia (west central Asia Minor). Quoted in Greek in Palestine, 311/325.
E00256Eusebius of Caesarea, in his Ecclesiastical History (3.39.4-6), reports that, when he wrote, two tombs of John were known in Ephesos (western Asia Minor), one ascribed to *John the Evangelist (S00042) and another to the obscure apostle *John the Elder (S01115). Written in Greek in Palestine, 311/325.
E00367Gregory of Tours writes the Glory of the Martyrs (Liber in Gloria Martyrum), in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 580/594. Overview entry.
E00488Polykrates, bishop of Ephesos, writing in Greek to Victor, bishop of Rome, in the late 2nd c., and quoted by Eusebius of Caesarea in his Ecclesiastical History, cites the apostles and martyrs resting in the provinces of Asia as proof of the legitimacy of the traditions of the local churches: *Philip (the Apostle, S00109) at Hierapolis; *John (the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042) at Ephesos; *Polykarpos/Polycarp (bishop and martyr of Smyrna, S00004) and *Thraseas (bishop of Eumeneia, martyred at Smyrna, S00271), both at Smyrna; *Sagaris (bishop and martyr of Laodicea, S00272) at Laodicea; *Papirios (S00274); *Meliton (eunuch of Sardis, S00273) at Sardis. Written in Ephesos (western Asia Minor); quoted by Eusebius in Palestine, 311/325.
E00496Gregory of Tours, in his Glory of the Martyrs (29), tells how *John (the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042) entered his grave alive, and how the tomb produces miraculous 'manna' which is widely diffused. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 580/594.
E00498Gregory of Tours, in his Glory of the Martyrs (29), tells of the place in Ephesus (western Asia Minor) where *John (the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042) wrote his Gospel, and where the rain never falls. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 580/594.
E00561Greek epigram by Agathias Scholastikos, originally inscribed on the image, commemorating the dedication of an image to *Michael (the Archangel, S00181) by the high-ranking official Theodoros, thanking the saint for his promotions to magister and proconsul of Asia; set up in the narthex of the basilica of *John (the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042) at Ephesos (western Asia Minor). Written in the late 6th c. and recorded in the 10th c. Greek Anthology.
E00564Greek epigram from Ephesos (western Asia Minor), recording the crowning of Justinian and Theodora by *John (the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042), probably on an image depicting this scene, 527/548. Recorded in the 10th c. Greek Anthology.
E00565Greek epigram commemorating a dedication to a saint in Ephesos (western Asia Minor) after a victory at war; probably from a votive inscription of an emperor in the basilica of *John (the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042). Recorded in the 10th c. Greek Anthology.
E00570Gregory of Tours, in his Glory of the Martyrs (49), mentions the martyrdom of Photinus/Potheinos, bishop and one of the *Martyrs of Lyon (S00316), and tells of the martyrdom of his successor *Irenaeus (bishop and martyr of Lyon, S02832), who is buried in the church of *John (probably the Baptist, S00020, possibly the Evangelist and Apostle, S00042) in Lyon (central Gaul), next to *Epipodius and Alexander (martyrs of Lyon, S00318); dust gathered from their graves can cure the sick. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 580/594.
E00690The Notitia ecclesiarum urbis Romae, a guide to saints' graves around Rome, closes with the church and grave of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036) on the 'via Vaticana', north-west of the city. Written in Latin in Rome, 625/649. A description of the basilica, added in the later 8th c., lists many of the altars of saints within the church.
E00708Fragmentary Greek inscription from Ephesos (western Asia Minor) with an excerpt from a letter, probably from the emperor Justinian (527-565), stating the unique dignity of *John (Apostle and Evangelist, S00042) and his precedence over *Polycarp (bishop and martyr of Smyrna, S00004).
E00716Latin inscription commemorating the construction of something, perhaps a memoria, to *John (the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042) at Ephesus (western Asia Minor), supervised by Titus Fabius Titianus, proconsul of Asia, and presumably commissioned by the emperor Constantine; datable to 324/337.
E00723Victricius of Rouen names saints who perform healing miracles at their burial place and elsewhere: *John (the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042), *Proculus and *Agricola (martyrs of Bologna, S00448 and S00310), *Antonius/Antoninus (martyr of Piacenza, S00328), *Nazarius (martyr of Milan, S00281) and several other saints, male and female, of uncertain identity (S00446, S00449, and S00453). Written in Latin in Rouen (northern Gaul), 395/397.
E00738Greek inscription on a boundary stone of a sanctuary of *John the Apostle and Evangelist (S00042) found near Kazıkbağları - Zeytindağ (ancient Elaia in the province of Asia; north-west Asia Minor). Probably late antique (5th-8th c.).
E00743Greek graffito with a request for help addressed to Christ and *John the Apostle and Evangelist (here called the Theologian, S00042), written on a white marble wall panel, found in the Domitian Street in Ephesos (western Asia Minor). 5th c. or later.
E00745Fragmentary Greek inscription with a partially preserved imperial letter bestowing privileges upon the church of *John the Apostle and Evangelist (S00042) in Ephesos (western Asia Minor), apparently from the emperor Justinian or one his successors (527-610).
E00747Bishop Nicetius of Trier, in a letter to Chlodosinda, queen of the Lombards (Austrasian Letter 8), claims that relics and churches dedicated to the saints are ineffective for Arians; he mentions Gothic veneration for the *Apostles (S02422), and alludes to churches or shrines of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), and *John (probably the Baptist, S00020), all probably at Rome. Written in Latin, presumably at Trier (eastern Gaul), 561/569.
E00765Fragmentary Greek inscription with remnants of what could have been a governor's letter, possibly dealing with the status of the church of *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033) and the church of *John the Apostle and Evangelist (S00042) in Ephesos. Found in Ephesos (western Asia Minor), at the site of the church of Mary. Probably 6th c.
E00766Fragmentary Greek inscription with headings of two imperial letters, apparently from Justinian to Hypatios, bishop of Ephesos (western Asia Minor). The letters probably deal with tensions between the bishop of Ephesos and the clergy of the church of *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033) and the church of *John the Apostle and Evangelist (S00042). 527-533.
E00778Fragments of a Greek inscription with a letter, probably from a governor (proconsul) of the province of Asia, promulgating imperial resolutions for the episcopal church of *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), and for the church of *John the Apostle and Evangelist (S00042). Found at the site of the church of *Mary in Ephesos (western Asia Minor), 530-539.
E00784Greek epitaph for the wife of a deacon of the church of *John the Apostle and Evangelist (S00042) in Ephesos. Found at the site of the church of *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033) in Ephesos (western Asia Minor). Probably middle Byzantine.
E00786Greek graffiti from the church of *John the Apostle and Evangelist (S00042) in Ephesos (western Asia Minor) with numerous invocations of this saint. 6th c. or later.
E00793Fragmentary Greek inscription on a lintel, with an invocation of *John the Apostle and Evangelist (S00042) asked to help a steward/oikonomos Isidoros. In the Museum of Izmir; said to be from Ephesos (western Asia Minor). Possibly 5th/7th c. according to the first edition, but most likely dating from the 10th or 11th c.
E00837Greek graffiti on a marble balustrade, with invocations of *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033) and probably *John (presumably either the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042), *Michael (the Archangel, S00181), and *George (soldier and martyr, S00259). Found in Aphrodisias (Caria, western Asia Minor), at the Temple/Church site. Probably 5th/6th c. or later.
E00865Multiple fragments of a Greek dedicatory inscription, probably commemorating the consecration of a church of the Apostles: *Peter (S00036), possibly *Paul (S00008), *Andrew (S00288), probably *Philip (S00109), probably *Thomas (S00199), *John (S00042); others are perhaps also named. Found at Side (Pamphylia, southern Asia Minor). Probably mid-6th c.
E00869Bilingual (Latin and Greek) inscription with an imperial letter of Justin I and Justinian, placing the estates, owned by an oratory (eukterion) of *John the Apostle and Evangelist (S00042), and the peasants cultivating them, under the care of the said emperors. Found near Lagbe (Pamphylia, southern Asia Minor). Dated 1 June 527.
E00975Quodvultdeus of Carthage, in his Book of Promises, names several tombs of apostles and saints which guarantee the truthfulness of the doctrine of the Church: in Jerusalem, of *James (probably the 'brother of the Lord', S00058) and *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030); at Ephesus, *John (the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042); in Asia, *Andrew (the Apostle, S00288); in Rome, the Apostles0 *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and *Paul S00008). Written in Latin,probably during Quodvultdeus' exile in Italy, 440/454.
E01022Greek epitaph for a girl buried 'in the holy place of John', probably *John the Baptist (S00020). Found near Tyana (Cappadocia, central Asia Minor). Probably late antique.
E01038Greek epitaph for a presbyter of a church of *John (probably either the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042). Found near Diokaisareia/Diocaesarea (Isauria, southern Asia Minor). Probably 6th c.
E01079Greek inscription commemorating the construction of a church dedicated to *John the Apostle and Evangelist (S00042) as fulfilment of a vow made by a member of the local elite and his son. Found near Flaviopolis (Cilicia, south-east Asia Minor). Dated 596.
E01092Fragmentary Greek fiscal codex from Aphrodito (Upper Egypt), containing an account of public taxes and mentioning a monastery of *Shenoute (abbot of the White Monastery, d. 465) as well as an institution dedicated to *John (presumably the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042); datable to the 8th c.
E01144Coptic legal document concerning a donation or regular payment to an oratory, probably of *John (if so, probably either the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042) in the area of Hermopolis (Middle Egypt), written in the 8th century.
E01145Coptic acknowledgement of a financial debt to the oratory of *John (presumably either the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042) in Hermopolis (Middle Egypt), possibly due to a pledge by the deceased mother of the debtor; written in the 8th century.
E01176Fragment of a Greek inscription referring to *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033) and *John the Apostle and Evangelist (S00042) as the Theologian, probably with an excerpt from an imperial letter. Found in Pythagorio (Samos, the Aegean Islands). Tentatively dated to mid-5th c., but more likely to be 6th c.
E01179Greek invocation of the God of a saint, whose name is lost, probably *John the Apostle and Evangelist (S00042). Found in the monastery of John the Theologian on Patmos. Possibly late antique or later.
E01239Floor-mosaic with a Greek inscription mentioning the founder of a church dedicated to *John (presumably either the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042). Found at Mirties/Panormos (Kalymnos, the Aegean Islands). Probably 5th c.
E01250A marble plaque with a Greek graffito with the name of *John the Apostle and Evangelist (S00042). Found at Thasos/modern Limenas (island of Thasos; Aegean Islands). Probably late antique.
E01267Inscribed terracotta disc, almost certainly a bread stamp for making eulogia, with a Greek inscription referring to a saint *John (probably either the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042). Found near Porinos Oikos on Delos (Aegean Islands), probably 5th-7th c.
E01307The Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome in the 530s, and re-edited before 546, in its account of *Hilarus (bishop of Rome, ob. 468, S00566) names his refurbishments in, and offerings to, several churches and oratories in Rome: dedicated to *John (Apostle and Evangelist, S00042), *John the Baptist (S00020), the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008), *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), *Laurence (deacon and martyr of Rome, S00037), and *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030).
E01338The church of Panagia Kanakaria at Lythrankomi (north-eastern Cyprus) houses a mosaic with depictions of Christ, *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), unnamed *Archangels (almost certainly *Michael, S00181, and *Gabriel, S00192), and with labelled depictions of *Apostles and *Evangelists. Probably 525-550.
E01347The second edition of the Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome between the 530s and 546, in its account of *Symmachus (bishop and confessor of Rome, S00793), lists his extensive work at the basilica of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036) in Rome, honouring a number of different saints.
E01397The early 5th c. Syriac Martyrology commemorates on 27 December the martyrdom of *John (the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042) and *James (the Apostle, son of Zebedee, S00108).
E01614A tract on the Trinity, written in Latin, probably in 6th c. Gaul, claims that cities where the churches were founded by the Apostles have never fallen under the control of heretics. It lists Jerusalem; Ephesus, founded by *John (the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042); Alexandria, founded by *Mark (the Evangelist, S00293); and Smyrna, where the first bishop was Polycarp/Polykarpos (S00004). It then lists four founders of sees in Gaul: *Trophimus (bishop and confessor of Arles, S00617), *Paulus (bishop of Narbonne, S00503), *Saturninus (bishop and martyr of Toulouse, S00289), and *Daphnus (bishop of Vaison, S00851), and claims them as disciples of the Apostles. The tract has been attributed to Caesarius of Arles, but the attribution is questionable.
E01626The short Life of *John IV (bishop of Rome, ob. 642, S00854) in the Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome soon after his death, records his building of a church, next to the Lateran basilica, of *Venantius, Anastasius, and Maurus, and other martyrs of Istria and Dalmatia (S00853), whose relics John transferred to Rome; and mentions his burial at the church of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036) on 12 October.
E01689Greek inscription on a house at Barad/Brad in the Limestone Massif (north Syria), with a list of six or more saints: a saint *John (presumably either the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042), *Dometios (monk of Syria, later 4th c., S00414), *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), *Christophoros (martyr of Pamphylia, S00616), *Euphemia (probably the martyr of Chalcedon, S00017), *Philotheos (possibly the martyr of Antioch, S00878), possibly *Kyros and Ioannes/Cyrus and John (physician and soldier, martyrs of Egypt, S00406), a certain *Eusebios, possibly *Thomas the Apostle (S00199), and other unnamed martyrs. Probably 5th/6th c.
E01749Gregory of Nyssa in his Encomion On *Theodoros (soldier and martyr of Amaseia and Euchaita, S00480), of the 380s, invokes the protection of the saint for the local community against a barbarian invasion. He thanks him for repelling a past attack and urges him to invite other saints to his supplication on behalf of the area, especially the Apostles *Peter (S00036), *Paul (S00008), and *John (S00042). Written in Greek in Pontus (northern Asia Minor).
E01796Greek inscription on a lintel, referring to a saint *John (probably either the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042). Found at Abouḍḍouhour/Abu al-Duhur, between Beroia/Aleppo and Ḥamāh (central Syria). Dated 502.
E01808Gregory of Nyssa in the 380s composes his Encomium on *Basil (bishop of Caesarea, ob. 379, S00780), which he delivers during the saint’s festival on 1 January. Basil’s memory is added to a series of major feasts, namely Christmas, *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), and the Apostles *Peter (S00036), *James (S00108),*John (S00042), and *Paul (S00008). The author argues that Basil deserves to be honoured after these figures. He mentions miracles during Basil’s life. Written in Greek in Cappadocia (central Asia Minor).
E01831Gregory of Nyssa in his Second Encomium on *Stephen the First Martyr (S00030), written in 386, refers to the feasts of Stephen, and of the Apostles *Peter (S00036), *James (S00108), and *John (S00042), probably celebrated on 26 and 27 December. Composed in Greek in Cappadocia (central Asia Minor).
E01879Gregory of Nyssa in his Life of *Gregory the Miracle-Worker (bishop and missionary in Pontus, S00687), of the late 370s or the 380s, recounts a vision experienced by the saint (purportedly in the early 3rd century), with *John the Evangelist (S00042) and *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033) revealing the doctrine of the Trinity. Written in Greek in Asia Minor.
E01904Gregory of Nazianzus in his Oration 4 (Against Julian I), of 362/363, refers to the deaths of martyrs, naming the Apostles *John (S00042), *Peter (S00036), *Paul (S00008), and *James (S00108), *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), *Luke (the Evangelist, S00442), *Andrew (the Apostle, S00288), and *Thekla (follower of the Apostle Paul, S00092). He refers to the festivals held in their honour and the miracles performed by their bodily remains. Written in Greek at Nazianzus (central Asia Minor).
E01935Greek inscription with a Christian acclamation and an invocation of the help of a 'Saint John' (probably either the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042), possibly by soldiers garrisoned at the citadel of Ḥimṣ/Emesa (northwest Phoenicia). Found at a gateway, at the citadel. Dated probably 509.
E01960Asterius of Amasea, in his Homily VIII, On the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008), delivered during a service celebrated on their feast, refers to the superiority of Peter over the Apostles *John (S00042), *James (son of Zebedee, S00108) and *Philip (S00109). Written in Greek in Amaseia/Amasea (northern Asia Minor), in the late 4th or early 5th c..
E01965Greek inscription just possibly for a church dedicated to a saint John (if so, probably either the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042). Found at Tell eḍ-Ḍahab near Apamea on the Orontes (central Syria). Probably 5th-7th c.
E02123Greek list from the city of Oxyrhynchos (Middle Egypt), listing churches, most of them dedicated to saints, including *Viktor (presumably the Egyptian martyr, son of Romanos, S00749), *Neilos (presumably the ascetic of Sinai, S00405), *Zechariah (presumably the father of John the Baptist, S00597), *John (the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042), *Gabriel (the Archangel, S00192), *Kollouthos (physician and martyr of Antinoopolis, S00641), *John the Baptist (S00020), *Theodore (presumably the soldier and martyr of Amaseia and Euchaita, S00480), *Ioustos (presumably the soldier and martyr of Antinoopolis, S01172), and *Phoibammon (presumably the soldier and martyr of Assiut, S00080); datable to the 6th century.
E02124Greek list from the city of Oxyrhynchos (Middle Egypt), presenting churches, chapels, and martyria, most of them dedicated to saints, including *Serenos/Sirenos (probably a martyr of Oxyrhynchus, S00134), *Anoup (presumably the saint with cult at Bawit, S00774), *Menas (soldier and martyr of Abu Mena, S00073), and *John (presumably the Evangelist, S00042), datable to the early 6th century.
E02126Greek order from Oxyrhynchos (Middle Egypt) to supply wine for widows of the martyr shrine of *John, (presumably either the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042, or the Baptist, S00020), datable to the 5th/6th century.
E02145Asterius of Amasea, in his Homily XII, On *Stephen the First Martyr (S00030), delivered on the saint’s festival on 26 December, presents a contemplation on the story and martyrdom of Stephen. Written in Greek at Amaseia/Amasea of Pontus (northern Asia Minor), in the late 4th or early 5th c..
E02167Greek order for a payment in wine, from the Fayum, to be made to the reader of a church of *John (presumably either the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042); datable to the 5th century.
E02231Greek order for payment of wine, from Oxyrhynchos (Middle Egypt), mentioning a door keeper to an institution dedicated to *John (presumably either the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042, or the Baptist, S00020), dated to the year 503.
E02240Greek inscription just possibly referring to a Saint *John (if so, presumably either the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042), and *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), as well as Christ. Found at Muṭā'iyyeh, to the west of Bostra (Roman province of Arabia). Probably 5th-6th c.
E02285Greek amulet from Oxyrhynchos (Middle Egypt), invoking the help of *Mary (Μother of Christ, S00033), *John (the Εvangelist, S00042), *Serenos/Sirenos (probably a martyr of Oxyrhynchos, S00134), *Philoxenos (saint with cult at Oxyrhynchos, S00443), *Viktor (presumably the Egyptian martyr, son of Romanos, S00749), *Ioustos/Justus (presumably the soldier and martyr of Antinoopolis, S01172), and all saints (S01151), datable to the 5th century.
E02364Coptic acknowledgement of debt, from Herakleopolis/Hnes (Middle Egypt), mentioning a church of *John (presumably either the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist; S00042), dated to the year 783/784.
E02438Coptic letter, from the monastery of Epiphanius at Thebes (Upper Egypt), mentioning an oath sworn to *John (presumably either the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042), datable to the end of the 6th/beginning of the 7th century.
E02441Coptic Letter, from the monastery of Epiphanius at Thebes (Upper Egypt), mentioning an institution dedicated to Apa *John (presumably either the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042), datable to the first half of the 7th century.
E02629Greek inscriptions carved on a quarry-face, mentioning the financial supervisor of a church dedicated to *John (presumably either the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042), probably in Bostra. Found at a limestone quarry sited c. 4 km to the southwest of Qaṣr al-Ḥallābāt and c. 40 km to the south of Bostra (Jordan/Roman province of Arabia). Probably 5th-7th c.
E02731Fragmentary Greek inscription from a lintel, probably commemorating the construction of a monastery (mone) dedicated to *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033) and an unspecified *John (presumably the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042). Found at Jerusalem (Roman province of Palaestina I). Precise provenance unknown. Probably 6th c.
E02831Bronze cross with a Greek inscription invoking the help of *John (presumably the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042). Provenance unknown, probably southeastern Mediterranean. Late antique.
E02965Floor-mosaic with a Greek inscription commemorating the foundation of a church of *John (presumably either the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042) in 544, and the laying-out of mosaics in 549/550. Found at Tell Skehef, to the east of Askalon and Gaza (Roman province of Palaestina I).
E02967Lid of a limestone reliquary, covered by four Greek inscriptions referring to *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), *Christophoros (martyr of Pamphylia, S00616), a certain *John (probably the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042), and the *Apostles, all of them with unnamed companions (?). Unknown provenance (possibly Syria), now in the Benaki Museum (Athens). Probably 5th-6th c.
E03103The early seventh-century Georgian version of the Lectionary of Jerusalem commemorates on 8 April *John (Apostle and Evangelist, S00042).
E03145The early seventh-century Georgian version of the Lectionary of Jerusalem commemorates on 8 May at the Church of the Anastasis, *John (Apostle and Evangelist, S00042).
E03146The early seventh-century Georgian version of the Lectionary of Jerusalem commemorates on 9 May at the Church of the Apostles in Jerusalem the deposition of relics of the Apostles *Peter (S00036), *Thomas (S00199) and *John (S00042), of *John the Baptist (S00020), *Isaiah (Old Testament Prophet, S00280), *Theodore (soldier and martyr of Amaseia and Euchaita, S00480), Claudian (unidentified figure), *Tryphon (possibly the martyr of Nikaia/Nicaea, S00439).
E03151The early seventh-century Georgian version of the Lectionary of Jerusalem commemorates on 14 May *John (Apostle and Evangelist, S00042).
E03193The early seventh-century Georgian version of the Lectionary of Jerusalem commemorates on 12 June the Evangelists *Matthew (S00791), *Mark (S00293), *Luke (S00442) and *John (S00042).
E03290The early seventh-century Georgian version of the Lectionary of Jerusalem commemorates on 30 July *John (Apostle and Evangelist, S00042).
E03417The early seventh-century Georgian version of the Lectionary of Jerusalem commemorates on 2 November *John (Apostle and Evangelist, S00042).
E03473The early seventh-century Georgian version of the Lectionary of Jerusalem commemorates on 29 December *James ('brother of the lord', S00058) and *John (Apostle and Evangelist, S00042).
E03504Greek dedicatory inscription on a bronze lamp-holder (polycandelon), recording its offering to a church of *John (probably either the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042). Provenance unknown, probably Palestine, Syria, or Arabia. Probably 6th-7th c.
E03538Floor-mosaic with a Syriac inscription commemorating the paving of a martyr shrine (bet sahdē), and mentioning an unspecified Saint *John (probably the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042). Found at al-Nabgha al-Kebira (to the northeast of Beroia/Aleppo, north Syria). Dated probably 406-407.
E03563Three fragmentary Greek homilies of the 5th or 6th centuries, attributed to Cyril of Alexandria, refer to the translation of the relics of *Kyros and Ioannes/Cyrus and John (physician and soldier, martyrs of Egypt, S00406) from the shrine of *Mark (the Evangelist, S00293) in Alexandria to the church of the Evangelists at the monastery of Metanoia, between Kanopos and Menuthis (Lower Egypt). The author refers to the story of the martyrs and the identification of their relics. The new shrine (martyrion) aims at preventing the locals from visiting pagan shrines for healing.
E03580Floor-mosaic with a bilingual Greek and Christian-Palestinian Aramaic inscription possibly referring to an unspecified saint *John (presumably either the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042), sometimes argued to have recorded the names of *Kyros and Ioannes/Cyrus and John (physician and soldier, martyrs of Alexandria, S00406). Found at Khirbet Umm er-Rus near Beit Jimal and Eleutheropolis, in the Judean Hills, c. 20 km to the southwest of Jerusalem (Roman province of Palaestina I). Probably 6th-7th c.
E03733The Church Calendar of Ioane Zosime, compiled in Georgian in the 10th c., based however on 5th-7th c. prototypes from Palestine, commemorates on 8 May *John (Apostle and Evangelist, S00042), and *Job (Old Testament Patriarch, S01191), *Arsenios the Great (ascetic of Sketis and Turah, ob. c. 445, S01693).
E03734The Church Calendar of Ioane Zosime, compiled in Georgian in the 10th c., based however on 5th-7th c. prototypes from Palestine, commemorates on 9 May the deposition of relics of the Apostles *Peter (S00036), *Paul (*00008), *Philip (S00109), *Thomas (S00199), of *John the Baptist (S00020), *Isaiah (Old Testament Prophet, S00280), martyrs *Theodore (possibly soldier and martyr of Amaseia and Euchaita, S00480), or a group of martyrs: Diodoros, Claudianus, Tryphaines, Nikephoros and their companions.
E03816The Church Calendar of Ioane Zosime, compiled in Georgian in the 10th c., based however on 5th-7th c. prototypes from Palestine, commemorates on 30 July in the church of the Holy Anastasis, *John (Apostle and Evangelist, S00042), *Ezekiel (Old Testament prophet, E01493), *Theodosius (Roman Emperor, ob. 395, S01350).
E03914The Church Calendar of Ioane Zosime, compiled in Georgian in the 10th c., based however on 5th-7th c. prototypes from Palestine, commemorates on 2 November *John (the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042), Stategius (an unidentified figure), and *Akyndinos (martyr in Persia, S00399).
E03972The Church Calendar of Ioane Zosime, compiled in Georgian in the 10th c., based however on 5th-7th c. prototypes from Palestine, commemorates on 28 December *Paul (the Apostle, S00008) and *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), *John (Apostle and Evangelist, S00042), Theodore (patriarch of Constantinople, ob. 687), and the massacre of the fathers of Sinai and Raithou.
E03975The Church Calendar of Ioane Zosime, compiled in Georgian in the 10th c., based however on 5th-7th c. prototypes from Palestine, commemorates on 31 December *Boas (martyr of Hierapolis under Aurelian, S01669), *Zotikos (martyr and 'nourisher of orphans', S01064), *John (Apostle and Evangelist, S00042), *James (the Apostle, son of Zebedee, S00108), and *Markellos (hegumen in Constantinople, 5th c. S01670).
E04007Socrates in the Ecclesiastical History reports that, in 404, bishop Epiphanius of Salamis visited the shrine of *John (the Baptist S00020, or the Evangelist S00042) at Hebdomon (Constantinople) where he celebrated a service and ordination. Written in Greek at Constantinople, 439/446.
E04013Socrates in his Ecclesiastical History reports that, in 400, the emperor Arcadius and the Gothic leader Gainas took oaths of non-aggression at the shrine of *Euphemia (martyr of Chalcedon, S00017) at Chalcedon, near Cosntantinople. Later, Gainas was prevented by angels from torching the imperial palace in Constantinople, and settled at the shrine of *John (the Baptist S00020, or the Evangelist S00042) at Hebdomon, pretending to suffer from a demon. Written in Greek at Constantinople, 439/446.
E04176Coptic ostracon from western Thebes (Upper Egypt) mentioning the production of commentaries to *John (Apostle and Evangelist, S00042); datable to the 7th century.
E04177Coptic ostracon from western Thebes (Upper Egypt) mentioning *John (most likely the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042); datable to the 7th century.
E04186Theodoret of Cyrrhus in his Ecclesiastical History recounts the victory of the emperor Theodosius I over the usurper Eugenius at the Battle of the Frigidus in 394, with the help of *John (Apostle and Evangelist, S00042) and *Philip (Apostle, S00109). Written in Greek at Cyrrhus (northern Syria), 444/450.
E04315Greek list of payments from Aphrodito (Upper Egypt), mentioning a monastery dedicated to *Senouthios (possibly the abbot of the White Monastery near Akhmim/Panopolis, S00688) as well as workers of an area dedicated to *John (presumably the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042); datable to the 8th c.
E04391A now lost Greek homily ascribed to John Chrysostom refers to the feast of the apostles *Peter (S00036), *James (the son of Zebedee, S00108), and *John (S00042), most probably delivered on their feast in late December. It is quoted by Eustratius of Constantinople, in his tract On the State of the Souls after Death, written at Constantinople, in 582/602.
E04452Greek epitaph for a person affiliated to the Ephesian church of *John (the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042), probably a psalmist. Found near Ephesos (Roman province of Asia). Probably 6th c. or later.
E04579Floor-mosaic with a Greek inscription commemorating the construction of a church dedicated to a saint *John (either the *Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042) through the intercession of *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033). Found at Khirbet Damun, Mount Carmel, near modern Haifa (Roman province of Phoenicia). Probably 6th c.
E04619Procopius of Caesarea, in his On Buildings, reports that the emperor Justinian (r. 527-565) rebuilt from its foundation, and on a much larger scale, the church of *John (the Apostle and Evangelist, S00040) outside the city of Ephesus (western Asia Minor); the new church is said to have closely resembled the church of the *Apostles (S02422) in Constantinople (E04334). Written in Greek at Constantinople, in the 550s.
E04767Paulinus of Nola, in many of his fourteen poems (the Natalicia) written in honour of *Felix (priest and confessor of Nola, S00000), identifies Felix as the special protector (patronus) of Nola (southern Italy); the similar role of other saints, in other regions, is detailed in Natalicium 11. Written in Latin, in Spain and later Nola, between 395 and 408.
E04768Paulinus of Nola, in several of his poems (in the Natalicia) written in honour of *Felix (priest and confessor of Nola, S00000), describes the building work undertaken by Paulinus at Felix’s tomb at Nola/Cimitile (southern Italy); Natalicium 9 also refers to the relics of several other apostolic saints and martyrs housed in the basilica complex at Nola. Written in Latin, in Spain and later Nola, between 400 and 407.
E05066The 6th/7th c. recension of the Latin Martyrologium Hieronymianum, as transmitted in 8th c. manuscripts, records the feasts of a number of saints on 27 December.
E05068The 6th/7th c. recension of the Latin Martyrologium Hieronymianum, as transmitted in 8th c. manuscripts, records the feasts of a number of saints on 29 December.
E05099Procopius of Caesarea, in his On Buildings, reports that the emperor Justinian (r. 527-565) renovated a great number of monasteries in the region of Jerusalem (and elsewhere in the East), many of them dedicated to saints. Written in Greek at Constantinople, in the 550s.
E05172Latin Orationale of the Old Hispanic Liturgy of the 7th c. (Orationale Visigothicum), with prayers used on the feasts of saints in December: *Leocadia (virgin and confessor of Toledo, S01367), *Eulalia (virgin and martyr of Mérida, S00407), *Mary, Mother of Christ (S00033), *Stephen, the First Martyr (S00030), *Eugenia (virgin and martyr of Rome, S00401), *John the Apostle and Evangelist (S00042), *Columba (virgin and martyr of Sens, 01862).
E05245The pilgrim Egeria, in her Itinerary, records her stay in Constantinople, where she visited martyr shrines (martyria) and churches of Apostles, but does not name them (the latter were probably *Andrew the Apostle S00288, *Luke the Evangelist, S00442, and *Timothy, the disciple of Paul the Apostle, S00466), and expresses her intention to visit the martyr shrine of *John (the Apostle and Evangelist S00042) at Ephesus (western Asia Minor). Written in Latin during Egeria's journey to the East, probably in 381-384.
E05264John Moschus, in his Spiritual Meadow (46), recounts how Abba Kyriakos, a priest at the Lavra of Calamon on the Holy Jordan had a dream in which *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033) accompanied by *John (the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042) and *John the Baptist (S00020) came to him, and revealed that Kyriakos unwittingly had heretical Nestorian writings in his cell. Written in Greek, probably in Rome, in the 620s or 630s.
E05300Chromatius of Aquileia preaches two sermons (Sermons 21 and 22) on the feast day of *John (the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042); one of these refers to the presence of relics of John in the church at Aquileia (northern Italy). Delivered in Latin in Aquileia, 388/407.
E05301Chromatius of Aquileia preaches a sermon (Sermon 26) at the consecration of a church in Concordia (near Aquileia), with relics deposited in its altar of the apostles *John (S00042), *Andrew (S00288), and *Thomas (S00199), and of *Luke (the Evangelist, S00442) and *John (the Baptist, S00020). Chromatius refers to the translation of Thomas' relics from India to Edessa (Upper Mesopotamia). Delivered in Latin in Concordia (northern Italy), 388/407.
E05336John Moschus, in his Spiritual Meadow (180), recounts a story about Abba John the Anchorite who lived in a cave 20 miles from Jerusalem. John had an icon of *Mary (Mother of Christ; S00033) in his cave. He used to travel to visit martyr shrines, even very distant ones, including those of *John (the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042) at Ephesus (western Asia Minor), *Theodore (soldier and martyr of Amaseia and Euchaita, S00480) at Euchaita (northern Asia Minor), *Thekla (follower of the Apostle Paul, S00092) at Seleucia (southern Asia Minor), and *Sergios (soldier and martyr of Rusafa, S00023) at Rusafa/Sergiopolis (north-east Syria). Whenever Abba John was about to set off on a journey, he lit a lamp and prayed to Mary asking her to keep it from going out. When he returned from a journey, he always found the lamp alight. Written in Greek, probably in Rome, in the 620s or 630s.
E05441Coptic inscription from Wadi Sarga (Upper Egypt), with an invocation of *Moses (S00241), *Adam (S00772), *Peter (S00036), *John the Baptist (S00020), *John the virgin (S00042), the *Apostles (S00084), and the *Martyrs (S00060); datable to the 7th/8th century.
E05570The Greek Life of *Hypatios (abbot of Rufinianae, ob. 446, S02090) by Kallinikos mentions that when Nestorius of Constantinople was deposed by the Council of Ephesus (431), Hypatios of Rufinianae had a dream vision of *John (Apostle and Evangelist, S00042) instructing the emperor to condemn Nestorius. Written at Rufinianae (near Constantinople), 447/450.
E05668John Malalas in his Chronographia mentions the unexplained disappearance, in c. AD 100, of *John (Apostle and Evangelist, S00042) from Ephesus (western Asia Minor), where he had been living as a bishop. Written in Greek at Antioch (Syria) or Constantinople, in the mid-6th c.
E05720John Malalas in his Chronographia mentions a pilgrimage of the emperor Theodosius II to the shrine of *John (Apostle and Evangelist, S00042) at Ephesus (western Asia Minor) shortly before his death in 450; there he received a revelation of the name of his successor. Written in Greek at Antioch (Syria) or Constantinople, in the mid-6th c.
E05777Agnellus of Ravenna, in his Liber Pontificalis Ecclesiae Ravennatis, written in Latin, refers to the presence of a monasterium dedicated to *John (the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042) in Classe (northern Italy) in the mid-6th c.; written in Ravenna in 830/846.
E05781Agnellus of Ravenna, in his Liber Pontificalis Ecclesiae Ravennatis, written in Latin, describes how Galla Placidia commissioned a mosaic of *John (the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042) in a church dedicated to the same saint in Ravenna (northern Italy), now known as San Giovanni Evangelista, in 430/450; account written in Ravenna in 830/846.
E05862The Calendar of Willibrord, in its earliest version, records the feasts of various saints in December. Written in Latin at Echternach, Frisia (north-east Gaul), 703/710.
E05950Mosaic portraits of twelve apostles and twelve martyrs (six female, six male) depicted on the barrel vaults of the Cappella Arcivescovile in Ravenna (northern Italy), datable 494/520.
E05986Coptic ostracon from Deir el-Bahari (Upper Egypt) with a declaration made by a monk of the monastery of Apa *John (presumably either the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042) in the presence of bishop Abraham; datable around the year 600.
E05992Coptic ostracon from Deir el-Bahari (Upper Egypt) with the remains of a contract concerning cultivation of land, mentioning an institution, most likely a monastery, dedicated to Apa *John (presumably either the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042) as well as the one dedicated to Apa *Phoibammon (soldier and martyr of Assiut, S00080); datable to the 7th/8th century.
E05993Coptic ostracon from Deir el-Bahari (Upper Egypt) with a letter written by bishop Abraham stating that clerics should go to the shrine of Apa *John (presumably either the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042) to hold a night vigil and not just to receive the canon; datable around the year 600.
E05997Coptic ostracon from the area of Jeme (Upper Egypt) with a list of donations/payments made to the topos of Apa *John (presumably either the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042) and *Jakob (possibly the Old Testament patriarch, S00280); datable to the 7th century.
E06047Mosaics from the 6th c. depicting the Apostles, *Gervasius and Protasius (martyrs of Milan, S00313), and *Vitalis (martyr of Ravenna, S02826) in San Vitale, Ravenna (northern Italy).
E06060Adomnán, in his Life of *Columba (abbot of Iona, ob. 597, S02167), describes how Columba brought a dead child back to life, thus equalling the prophets *Elijah and *Elisha (S00217 and S00239] and the apostles *Peter (S00036), *Paul (S00008) and *John (S00042). Written in Latin at Iona, 696/704.
E06070Jordanes, in his Romana, written in Latin in Constantinople in the mid 6th century, records that the emperor Domitian, after failing to kill *John (the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042) by boiling him in oil, exiled him to the island of Patmos where he had his vision of the Apocalypse.
E06225An authentic Merovingian royal diploma records the foundation and endowment by Sigebert III, king of the Franks, of the monastery at Cugnon-sur-Semois (north-east Gaul) dedicated to the Apostle *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008), and *John (either the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042, or the Baptist, S00020), and other *unnamed martyrs (S00066). Written in Latin in Gaul, 643/8.
E06226Two authentic Merovingian royal diplomas record the foundation by Sigebert III, king of the Franks, of the monasteries at Stavelot and Malmedy (north-east Gaul) dedicated to, and holding relics of, *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), *John (either the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle, S00042), *Martin (ascetic and bishop of Tours, ob. 397, S00050), and other *unnamed saints (S00518); and their later confirmation by Theuderic III, king of the Franks, who also speaks of a dedication to *Mary (mother of Christ, S00033). Written in Latin in Gaul, 643/7-679/91.
E06245Venantius Fortunatus, in a poem on virginity (8.3), when describing the court of heaven lists numerous saints with the cities of their resting-place. Written in Latin in Gaul, probably in the early 570s.
E06261Cyril of Alexandria in 431, during the Council of Ephesus, preaches three homilies on *Mary (Mother of God, S00033) and one on *John (the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042); two are explicitly delivered at the Ephesian shrines of the two saints. Written in Greek at Ephesus (western Asia Minor).
E06298Fragmentary Greek epitaph for a person affiliated to the Corinthian church of *John (presumably either the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042), probably a reader (anagnostes). Found at Corinth (northeastern Peloponnese). Probably 6th c.
E06339Gregory the Great in a papal letter (Register 3.3) of 592, to Iohannes, an abbot of Syracuse (Sicily), asks that a tunic of Saint *John (either the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042) be brought to him. Written in Latin in Rome.
E06379Gregory the Great in a papal letter (Register 8.17) of 598, to Marinianus, bishop of Ravenna, seeks to regulate the affairs of a monastery dedicated to *John (probably the Baptist, S00020) and *Stephen (the first martyr, S00030) in Classe (the port of Ravenna, northern Italy). Written in Latin in Rome.
E06404Gregory the Great with a papal letter (Register 9.184) of 599, to Constantius, bishop of Milan (northern Italy), sends contact relics (sanctuaria) of *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), *John (probably the Baptist, S00020) and *Pancratius (martyr of Rome, S00307), and sets out how they should be deposited. Written in Latin in Rome.
E06406Gregory the Great in a papal letter (Register 9.195) of 599, to Scholasticus, defensor, mentions a bequest to a church dedicated to *John (the Baptist, S00020, or the Evangelist, S00042) outside Ortona (central Italy). Written in Latin in Rome.
E06440Gregory the Great in two papal letters (Register 14.7 and 14.13) of 603 and 604, to Alciso, bishop of Corfu, refers to the deposition of the body of *Donatus (bishop of Euria, ob. late 4th c, S01274) in a church dedicated to *John (the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042) in the fortress of Cassiopus (Corfu, Ionian Islands). Written in Latin in Rome.
E06533Hymn in honour of *John, the Apostle and Evangelist (S00042), composed in Latin presumably in Spain in the 7th c.
E06547Aldhelm, in his prose On Virginity, names *John (the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042) as an exemplary virgin, noting the belief of some that he may have never died and that the breathing from his tomb produces an exhalation of dust. Written in Latin in southern Britain, for the nuns at the monastery at Barking (south-east Britain), c. 675/686.
E06592The Latin Gelasian Sacramentary (or Liber Sacramentorum Romanae Ecclesiae), probably compiled around 750 near Paris using earlier material from Rome, records prayers to saints on their feast days in December.
E06659Aldhelm's verse On Virginity lists a range of saints as exemplary virgins, with some variations to the list found in the earlier prose version of the same treatise. Written in Latin in southern Britain, for the nuns at the monastery at Barking (south-east Britain), c. 675/710. Overview entry
E06887A list of subscriptions, preserved in a letter sent to Pope Agapetus I from eastern clerics protesting the appointment of Anthimus as the patriarch of Constantinople, documents foundations dedicated to saints in various places, including Syria. Written in Latin in Constantinople in 535/536.
E06923Aldhelm, in his poem On the Altars of the Twelve Apostles, records the dedication of an altar to *John (the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042), presumably in Britain. Written in Latin in southern Britain, c. 670/710.
E07001The De Locis Sanctis, a guide to the martyrs' burials around Rome, is followed by an Appendix listing 21 churches dedicated to saints within the Aurelianic walls of Rome. Written in Latin in Rome, certainly after 625 and before 790, possibly in 642/683.
E07025The Greek Life of *Auxentios (ascetic and monastic founder in Bithynia, ob. c. 470, S01523) recounts the life and miracles of its hero as an ascetic on mount Oxia, near Chalcedon (broader Constantinople), participant of the Council of Chalcedon, and founder of a nunnery at Gyrita near Chalcedon. It mentions shrines near Chalcedon. Written in Constantinople, probably in the mid 6th century.
E07237Caesarius, bishop of Arles, in his Sermon 221, On the feast of the Apostles James and John, celebrates the feast of *John (Apostle and Evangelist, S00042). Written in Latin at Arles (southern Gaul), 503/542.
E07840Gregory of Tours, in his Histories (1.26), mentions the story that *John (the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042) entered his tomb at Ephesus while still alive, and would remain there until the second coming of Christ. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 575/594.