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The Cult of Saints in Late Antiquity


from its origins to circa AD 700, across the entire Christian world


Name

Martyrs, unnamed or name lost

Saint ID

S00060

Gender
Male
Female
Type of Saint
Martyrs
Related Evidence Records
IDTitle
E00014Eusebius of Caesarea, in his Ecclesiastical History (4.15), mentions as his source-texts martyrdom accounts of the martyrs of Smyrna, including *Polykarpos/Polycarp (bishop and martyr, S00004), *Metrodoros (Marcionite priest and martyr, S00047), and *Pionios (presbyter and martyr, S00031), and of the martyrs of Pergamon, *Karpos, Papylos and Agathonike (S00051); all in western Asia Minor. He also mentions a collection of martyrdom accounts compiled by himself (now lost). Written in Greek in Palestine, 311/325.
E00035The Greek Martyrdom of Polycarp describes the martyrdom of *Polycarp/Polykarpos (bishop and martyr of Smyrna, S00004), including accounts of miracles and references to the veneration of his remains. Written in Smyrna (western Asia Minor) between the late 2nd and 3rd centuries. 3rd/4th century interpolations are possible. Overview entry
E00119Optatus, bishop of Milevis (central North Africa), in his polemical treatise Against Parmenianus, states that a rich Carthaginian woman in c. 300 used to kiss a bone of a supposed martyr before receiving the Eucharist. Written in Latin, probably in Milevis, 364/c. 384.
E00164Greek Calendar of Church Services to be performed at different churches in Oxyrhynchus (Middle Egypt) from the end of October to the end of March of the years 535–536, providing information on the names of many churches, and on the saints’ days celebrated in the city.
E00277Eusebius of Caesarea, in his Ecclesiastical History (6.41-42), written in Palestine 311/325, quotes a letter in Greek by Dionysios, bishop of Alexandria (Egypt), who, in 250/1, informs Phabios, bishop of Antioch (Syria), about martyrdoms in Egypt during the recent Decian persecution; 27 martyrs are named.
E00279Eusebius of Caesarea, in his Ecclesiastical History (7.12), mentions the martyrdoms of *Priskos, Malchos, and Alexandros (martyrs of Caesarea Maritima, S00240), and of an unnamed Marcionite woman at Caesarea of Palestine, under Valerian (r. 253-260). Written in Greek in Palestine, 311/325.
E00317Eusebius of Caesarea, in his Ecclesiastical History (8.6-12), reports that, during the persecutions of Diocletian, numerous Christians died as martyrs in Melitene, Syria, Palestine, Phoenice, Egypt, Africa, Arabia, Cappadocia, Mesopotamia and Pontus. He names the martyrs *Philoromos (martyr of Alexandria, S00126), *Phileas (bishop of Thmuis, martyr of Alexandria, S00125), and *Adauκtos (martyr of Rome, S00421), and refers to *Prosdoke, Bernike and Domnina (mother and daughters, martyrs of Antioch, S01008). Written in Greek in Palestine, 311/325.
E00318Eusebius of Caesarea, in his Ecclesiastical History (8.13 and 9.6), gives a list of nineteen Christian leaders martyred alongside numerous other Christians in various regions of the East during the tetrarchic persecutions (304-313). Written in Greek in Palestine, 311/325.
E00327The Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome in the 530s, and re-edited before 546, in its account of *Callixtus (bishop and martyr of Rome, S00145), states that he died a martyr and was buried in the cemetery of Calepodius, on the via Aurelia outside Rome, on 14 October. The second edition adds that he built a cemetery on the via Appia, where many martyrs lie and which is still called the cemetery of Callixtus.
E00328The Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome in the 530s, and re-edited before 546, in its account of *Urbanus (bishop and confessor/martyr of Rome, S00538), attributes the conversion of Valerianus, the husband of *Caecilia (virgin and martyr of Rome, S00146), and a number of other conversions and martyrdoms, to his teaching, and records his burial in the cemetery of Praetextatus on the via Appia outside Rome, on 19 May.
E00342The Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome in the 530s, and re-edited before 546, in its account of *Anteros (bishop and martyr of Rome, S00170), tells of the care he took to collect the written acts of the martyrs, in which he was prompted by the presbyter and martyr Maximus/Maximinus (perhaps *Maximus/Maximilianus, martyr of Rome, buried on the via Salaria vetus, S00173), and records Anteros' own martyrdom, and burial in the cemetery of Callixtus on the via Appia outside Rome, on 3 January [AD 236].
E00343The Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome in the 530s, and re-edited before 546, in its account of *Fabianus (bishop and martyr of Rome, S00147), recounts how he established in the Roman church subdeacons and notaries to collect the acts of martyrs; it then tells of Fabianus' own martyrdom, and his burial in the cemetery of Callixtus on the via Appia outside Rome, on 21 (or 20) January [AD 250].
E00363The Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome in the 530s, and re-edited before 546, in its account of *Felix I (bishop of Rome, S00200), tells how he instituted the custom of celebrating mass at the tombs of martyrs, and records Felix's burial in his own cemetery on the via Aurelia outside Rome (the second edition states that this was in a basilica he had built there), on 30 May [AD 274].
E00364The Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome in the 530s, and re-edited before 546, in its account of *Eutychianus (bishop and martyr of Rome, S00662), tells how he buried 342 martyrs and established rules concerning such burials, and then recounts his own burial in the cemetery of Callixtus on the via Appia outside Rome, on 25 July [AD 283]. In the second edition, but not the first, he is said to have suffered martyrdom.
E00367Gregory of Tours writes the Glory of the Martyrs (Liber in Gloria Martyrum), in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 580/594. Overview entry.
E00370Gregory of Tours, in his Glory of the Martyrs (5), tells how *Radegund (former queen, and monastic founder, ob. 587, S00182) obtained for her monastery in Poitiers (western Gaul) relics of the Holy Cross, and, through servants sent to the East for this purpose, relics of martyrs and confessors, which she placed in the reliquary of the Holy Cross; miracles occur in Poitiers in the presence of this reliquary. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 580/594.
E00396Eusebius of Caesarea, in his Life of Constantine (4.61), reports that the emperor Constantine, shortly before his death in 337, prayed at a shrine of martyrs at Helenopolis in Bithynia (north-west Asia Minor), perhaps the martyrium of *Loukianos (martyr of Nicomedia, S00151). Written in Greek in Palestine, 337/339.
E00538Gregory of Tours, in his Glory of the Martyrs (38), tells of the tomb of *Pancratius (martyr of Rome, S00307) outside Rome; he is the favoured saint in Rome for guaranteeing the truth of oaths. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 580/594.
E00633The Notitia ecclesiarum urbis Romae, a guide to saints' graves around Rome, lists those on the via Flaminia, north of the city. Written in Latin in Rome, 625/649.
E00683The Notitia ecclesiarum urbis Romae, a guide to saints' graves around Rome, lists those on the via Appia, south of the city. Written in Latin in Rome, 625/649.
E00688The Notitia ecclesiarum urbis Romae, a guide to saints' graves around Rome, lists those on the via Portuensis, south-west of the city. Written in Latin in Rome, 625/649.
E00699Coptic invocation to *unnamed martyrs (S00060) for help to punish a married couple, probably from the area south of Assiut (Upper Egypt), datable to the 4th-5th c.
E00699Coptic invocation to *unnamed martyrs (S00060) for help to punish a married couple, probably from the area south of Assiut (Upper Egypt), datable to the 4th-5th c.
E00706Greek inscription from Sillyon (Pamphylia, southern Asia Minor) on a sarcophagus found near the acropolis, indicating the original place of burial of *Tribimios (martyr of Sillyon, S00428), dedicated by a local bishop. Later 4th to 6th c.
E00714Greek inscription commemorating the beginning of the construction, and completion, of a sanctuary (martyria) of unnamed martyrs in Anasartha (northern Syria). Start of construction dated to 369.
E00735Greek inscription recording a request for help addressed to unnamed martyrs, found in Hisaralan (Hellespontus, north-west Asia Minor). Probably late antique (5th/8th c.).
E00754Basil of Caesarea, in his Letter 49 of the early 370s, praises a certain bishop Arkadios for having built a new church, and offers to send relics of martyrs for it, if he finds any. Written in Greek in Kaisarea/Caesarea of Cappadocia (central Asia Minor).
E00759Marutha (ob. ca 420), a bishop of Maypherqat (Martyropolis) in Mesopotamia, issues a canon that seeks to regularise the practice of eucharistic liturgy and other sacraments as performed in the martyr shrines, located outside of cities. From the Seventy Three Canons.
E00767A decree of the emperor Constantine, of 324, quoted in Greek by Eusebius of Caesarea in his Life of Constantine (2.40.1), orders the restoration of the resting places of martyrs and the sites of their death to the ownership of the Christian churches. Quoted in Caesarea of Palestine, 337/339.
E00769Eusebius of Caesarea in his Life of Constantine (3.48.1-2) claims that the first Christian emperor built shrines of martyrs in Constantinople and dedicated the city to the God of the martyrs. Written in Greek in Caesarea of Palestine, 337/339.
E00771Basil of Caesarea, in his Letter 95 of 372/373 (to Eusebios of Samosata), writes of a recent meeting he had with two bishops, during a festival held in mid-June at a prominent shrine of martyrs at the village of Phargamoun (probably near Nikopolis/Nicopolis of Armenia). Written in Greek at Kaisareia/Caesarea of Cappadocia (central Asia Minor).
E00773Basil of Caesarea in 376 writes his encyclical Letter 243, addressed to the bishops of Italy and Gaul, reporting on the persecution of the Orthodox by the Arian authorities in the East. He deplores that, although people suffer and die as martyrs, they are not venerated as such. Written in Greek at Kaisareia/Caesarea of Cappadocia (central Asia Minor).
E00774Basil of Caesarea, in his Letter 282 of the 370s to a fellow bishop, reproaches him for not attending a martyr’s festival in Kaisareia/Caesarea of Cappadocia (central Asia Minor), despite having been invited. Written in Greek at Kaisareia.
E00775Basil of Caesarea, in his Homily on Psalm 114 of the 370s, mentions his visitation at a church dedicated to a martyr, probably on its feast day. He had previously attended the festival at another church, perhaps of the same dedication. The congregation sings psalms during the service. Written in Greek in Cappadocia (central Asia Minor).
E00821Basil of Caesarea, in his Letter 202 of 375, to Amphilochios of Ikonion/Iconium, reports that, though ill, he paid a visit by carriage to shrines of martyrs near Kaisareia/Caesarea of Cappadocia (central Asia Minor). Written in Greek at Kaisareia.
E00834Fragmentary Greek inscription giving an account of the career of a certain Athanasios of Aphrodisias, a municipal official and traveller (perhaps an imperial envoy). Athanasios claims that, while on his journeys, he wished to be buried in his homeland, probably close to a memorial of unnamed martyrs. Found in Aphrodisias (Caria, western Asia Minor). 4th-6th c.
E00839Greek building inscription of a sanctuary of *George (probably the soldier and martyr, S00259) and unnamed martyrs, his companions. Found in Sakkaia/Maximianopolis near Bostra (province of Arabia). Almost certainly 6th c. (549/567), though once dated to the 4th c.
E00876Coptic prophetic passage, addressing Egypt and relating its creation, involving the assistance of *Michael (the Archangel, S00181), as the most important among the seventy-two countries of the world and as destined to rejoice in the establishment of thrones for its 83,721 martyrs. Datable to the 4th/5th c.
E00893The Life of Ambrose (bishop of Milan, northern Italy, ob. 397, S00490) by Paulinus of Milan, tells how its hero broke his fast only on Saturdays, Sundays, and the feast days of major martyrs. Written in Latin, probably in North Africa, c. 422.
E00895The Life of *Ambrose (bishop of Milan, ob. 397, S00490) by Paulinus of Milan tells how a blind man saw in a vision Ambrose in the company of many martyrs, and was healed when he touched the coffin containing the relics of the three *Anaunian Martyrs (S00605) as they were being transferred to Milan (northern Italy). Written in Latin, probably in North Africa, c. 422.
E00940Bilingual, Greek and Latin epitaph for a son of a high-ranking member of the imperial guard with a reference to burial ad martyres, probably *Dorotheos and Gorgonios (martyrs of Nicomedia, S00242). Found in Nicomedia (Bithynia, north-west Asia Minor). Probably 4th c.
E00941Greek epitaph for a deacon and guardian (paramonarios) of a church dedicated to an unnamed martyr. Found near Strobilos and Pylai (Bithynia, north-west Asia Minor). Probably late antique.
E00952Fragment of a marble slab with a short Greek inscription referring to unnamed martyrs. Found in Prusa ad Olympum (Bithynia, north-wset Asia Minor). Probably late antique.
E00989A white marble reliquary with carvings and Greek inscriptions referring to the relics of an unidentifiable saint *K(- - -), and apparently also to four unnamed martyrs. Found at Sebasteia (Roman province of Armenia I, eastern Asia Minor). Probably 6th/7th c.
E00992Greek dedicatory inscription commemorating an embellishment of a sanctuary of an unnamed martyr, almost certainly *Theodotos (probably a Montanist martyr of Ankyra, S00626). Found at Kalecik near Ankyra (Galatia, central Asia Minor). Probably 5th-6th c.
E01021Fragmentary Greek inscription with a poem invoking an unnamed female martyr and virgin, very possibly *Thekla (follower of the Apostle Paul, S00092). Found near Tyana (Cappadocia, central Asia Minor). Probably 5th/6th c.
E01030Augustine of Hippo, in his treatise Against the Letter of Parmenian, states that the Donatists celebrate the feasts of the members of their sect who were either punished by secular authorities or killed themselves by jumping off cliffs. Written in Latin in Hippo Regius (central North Africa), c. 400.
E01041Augustine of Hippo, in his City of God (1.1), states that during the sack of Rome in 410, Christians and pagans alike successfully sought asylum at the shrines of the apostles, not named, but evidently *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008), and of the martyrs. Written in Latin in Hippo Regius (central North Africa), 412/413.
E01042The fifth Mystagogic Catechesis, of the mid to late 4th c., ascribed to Cyril of Jerusalem (c. 313-387) or his successor John II (387-417), mentions a special invocation of the intercession of *Patriarchs, *Prophets, *Apostles, and *Martyrs during the Eucharist. Written in Greek at Jerusalem.
E01100Gregory of Nazianzus composes his Oration 32, which he delivers in 379, during a service held on the festival of unnamed martyrs. The sermon contains no information about the martyrs. Written in Greek at Constantinople.
E01101A Greek homily On Martyrs and Against the Arians, of the 380s, probably incorrectly ascribed to Gregory of Nazianzus (as his Oration 35), is composed for an unnamed festival of martyrs, revived after a long period of neglect due to ecclesiastical conflicts. Probably delivered in Constantinople.
E01114Greek epitaph for a 'strong athlete of Christ', possibly a local Christian martyr. Found near Perta (Lycaonia, central Asia Minor). Probably 4th c.
E01136Augustine of Hippo, in his City of God (22.9), explains that the miracles performed at the relics of martyrs are witness to the resurrection of Christ. All the miracles are performed by God's power, only God is the object of Christian worship, and the veneration of martyrs does not resemble the cult of pagan gods and heroes. Written in Latin in Hippo Regius (central North Africa), 426/427.
E01142The East Syrian synod of 585, convened by the patriarch Īšō‘yahb I (ob. 595) in Seleucia-Ctesiphon (Mesopotamia), issues a canon that seeks to eradicate the practice of using the relics of saints for personal magical purposes. From the Acts of the Synod of 585.
E01159The East Syrian synod of 554, convened by the patriarch Joseph I (ob. 570) in Seleucia-Ctesiphon (Mesopotamia), issues a canon that seeks to abolish the earlier prohibition on building martyria shrines within cities and in their immediate vicinity. From the Acts of the Synod of 554.
E01198The Syriac Chronicle of Pseudo-Zachariah Rhetor, recounts how, after the death [in c. 529] of Mara of Amida [c. 529], a West-Syrian scholar in exile in Alexandria, his body was transferred by his sisters to his native land and buried in a martyrium shrine. Written, probably in Amida (northern Mesopotamia), c. 568/569.
E01204The Syriac Chronicle of Pseudo-Joshua the Stylite records how, in the year 498/499, the martyrium-church of the city of Arsamosata (Armenia) collapsed during a storm and earthquake, at the time of the annual commemoration of its saints, causing many who had taken shelter there to be crushed. Written in Edessa (northern Mesopotamia), 506/515.
E01210The Syriac Chronicle of Pseudo-Joshua the Stylite records how, on 6 September 503, the citizens of Edessa (northern Mesopotamia) brought into the city the relics of martyrs from the shrines outside it, while preparing to be besieged by the Persian king Kavadh I. Written in Edessa, 506/515.
E01215The Syriac Chronicle of Pseudo-Joshua the Stylite recounts how, during the year 504/505, the eunuch Urbicius made a donation for the building of a martyrium-church dedicated to *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033) in Edessa (northern Mesopotamia). In the same year, the city's governor diverted the oil assigned to Edessa's martyr-shrines to the lighting of the city's street. Written in Edessa, 506/515.
E01226Fragmentary Greek inscription, once wrongly thought to have been the epitaph for a martyred 1st c. preacher of the Gospel. Found in the city of Rhodes (Rhodes, the Aegean Islands). No certain dating.
E01230Greek inscription with a possible reference to a martyr, whose name is lost. Just possibly a conjuration/imprecation, or marker of a burial ad sanctos. Found near Antissa (Lesbos, the Aegean Islands). Probably 5th-7th c.
E01272The Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome in the 530s, and re-edited before 546, in its account of Felix II (bishop and, supposedly, martyr of Rome, ob. 365, S00493), tells how he condemned the emperor Constantius as a heretic, and suffered martyrdom; his body was secretly buried in the basilica which he (Felix) had built on the via Aurelia outside Rome, on 15 November [AD 365].
E01273The Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome in the 530s, and re-edited before 546, in its account of *Damasus (bishop of Rome, ob. 384, S00535), lists his construction of a basilica of *Laurence (martyr in Rome, S00037) inside the city of Rome; the dedication of a marble tablet at the Catacumbas cemetery on the via Appia, commemorating the former resting place of the bodies of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008); the discovery and honouring in verse of many martyrs; and his burial, with his mother and sister, in his own basilica on the via Ardeatina, on 11 December [AD 384].
E01278The Long Rules of the Asketikon, ascribed to Basil of Caesarea, express disapproval for commercial fairs taking place at shrines and festivals of martyrs. Written in Greek in Asia Minor, in the 4th c.
E01304Gregory of Nyssa, in his Letter 1 of the 380s or 390s, mentions festivals of a certain *Petros (bishop of Sebasteia, S01124 or S01125) and unnamed martyrs (perhaps *Athenogenes of Pedachthoe, S00065) at Sebasteia/Sebaste (eastern Asia Minor), and a festival of martyrs in the village of Andaëmona in Cappadocia (central Asia Minor). Probably written in Greek at Nyssa (central Asia Minor).
E01314The Canons of the Council of Gangra, of c. 340, condemn the extreme ascetic followers of Eustathios of Sebaste for rejecting the festivals and services held at the shrines of martyrs. Written in Greek at Gangra (central Anatolia).
E01349The Epic Histories, traditionally attributed to P'awstos, written in Armenian in the second half of the 5th c., recount the punishment of a certain hayr-mardpet (a royal official) who was jealous of the holy places where the martyria of the *saints (S00060) were located, and scorned them.
E01367The short Life of *Silverius (bishop of Rome, ob. 537, S00812) in the Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome, probably during the 6th c., mentions the destruction of the tombs of martyrs in the suburbs of Rome during the Gothic siege of 536. It also presents Silverius' death in exile at the island of Pontiae (today's Ponza) as that of a 'confessor', dates his burial there to 20 June 537 and attributes healing power to his tomb.
E01386Greek epitaph with a poem, composed probably for a nun, expressing the belief that the deceased will 'rejoice in paradise together with victorious virgin martyrs'. Found near Hagios Ioannes, close to Chania/Kydonia, northwest Crete. Probably 4th-5th c.
E01418Floor-mosaic with Greek inscriptions, commemorating the construction of a martyr shrine (martyrion). Found near the village of Aşaği Çardak (near ancient Zeugma, Commagene). Probably 5th-6th c.
E01422Floor-mosaic with a fragmentary Greek inscription commemorating the construction of a martyr shrine (martyrion) by a member of the city council and his wife. Found near Hülümen/Tınazdere (close to ancient Zeugma, Commagene). Probably 4th-5th c.
E01429The short Life of *Boniface IV (bishop of Rome, ob. 615, S00841) in the Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome, early in the 7th c., mentions his conversion of the Pantheon into the church of the blessed *Mary, 'ever-virgin' (S00033), and of All Martyrs (S02818), and Boniface's burial in the church of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), all in Rome.
E01439A large hollow stone block, probably a water basin (baptismal font?), with a Greek inscription with the name 'martyr Tho(- - -)'. Probably *Thomas the Apostle (S00199). Found at Tella/Constantina (north Mesopotamia/Osroene). Probably late antique.
E01442The short Life of *Boniface V (bishop of Rome, ob. 625, S00844) in the Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome soon after his death, mentions his regulations concerning handling relics, his renovation of the cemetery of *Nicomedes (on the via Nomentana, north-east of Rome), and his burial in the church of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036) in Rome.
E01469The early 5th c. Syriac Martyrology commemorates on the first Friday after Easter, the day of commemoration of all martyrs, in the month of April the martyrdom of *Hermas (martyr of Nisibis, S00998).
E01618Greek inscription commemorating the construction of a martyr shrine of unnamed martyrs, perhaps by a governor (dux) of the Roman province of Arabia or Phoenicia, in honour of his deceased daughter. Found in Anasartha/Theodoroupolis (north Syria). Probably late 4th-early 5th c.
E01654Floor-mosaic with a Greek inscription commemorating the paving and embellishment of the south aisle in a church dedicated to unnamed Holy Martyrs, and a mosaic just possibly showing the transportation of relics by two mules. Found at the village of Ṭayybat al-Imām near Ḥamāh (central Syria). Probably mid-5th c. or later.
E01661Greek building inscription for a martyr shrine (martyrion), found near South Church at Suganeh in the Limestone Massif/Jabal Sem'ān (north Syria, between Antioch on the Orontes and Beroia/Aleppo). Dated 515 or 516.
E01670Greek inscription, commemorating the construction probably of a room or chapel, at a church dedicated to 'All Martyrs'. Found at Ḫarāb aš-Šams in the Limestone Massif (north Syria, between Antioch on the Orontes and Beroia/Aleppo). Probably late antique.
E01673Greek inscription commemorating the construction of a martyr shrine (martyrion) of unnamed 'holy, gloriously triumphant martyrs'. Found at Qerqania near Antioch on the Orontes (north Syria). Perhaps 7th c., although once dated to the 4th c.
E01676Fragmentary Greek inscription commemorating the construction of a martyr shrine (martyrion) at Khirbet et-Tîn in the territory of Ḥimṣ/Emesa (northwest Phoenicia), just possibly for relics of *Dasios (martyr of Durostorum, on the Lower Danube, S00187). Dated 539.
E01681Floor-mosaic with a Greek inscription probably from north Syria, commemorating the construction of a church with a baptistery and a martyr shrine (martyrion). Exact provenance unknown. Possibly of the second half of the 4th c.
E01683An imperial decree of 30 July 381, issued in Latin and recorded in the Theodosian Code, prohibits the burial of dead bodies at the shrines of apostles and martyrs inside the walls of Constantinople. Promulgated in Latin at Heraclea (of Thrace?, eastern Balkans) and addressed to the Urban Prefect of Constantinople.
E01684An imperial decree of 26 February 386, issued in Latin and recorded in the Theodosian Code, prohibits the exhumation, partition, and selling of relics of martyrs. It authorises the construction of cult buildings at pre-existing burial sites of saints, which it rules should be designated as martyria. Issued in Constantinople and addressed to the Praetorian Prefect of the East.
E01687Floor-mosaics with Greek inscriptions commemorating the paving of the martyr shrine of unnamed 'Holy Martyrs' in the so-called 'Basilica of Ioulianos' at Barad/Brad in the Limestone Massif (north Syria, between Antioch on the Orontes and Beroia/Aleppo). Probably late 5th c.
E01688Greek inscription commemorating the construction of the so-called 'Basilica of Ioulianos' at Barad/Brad in the Limestone Massif (north Syria, between Antioch on the Orontes and Beroia/Aleppo) through the intercession of unnamed saints. Dated 402.
E01689Greek inscription on a house at Barad/Brad in the Limestone Massif (north Syria), with a list of six or more saints: a saint *John (presumably either the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042), *Dometios (monk of Syria, later 4th c., S00414), *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), *Christophoros (martyr of Pamphylia, S00616), *Euphemia (probably the martyr of Chalcedon, S00017), *Philotheos (possibly the martyr of Antioch, S00878), possibly *Kyros and Ioannes/Cyrus and John (physician and soldier, martyrs of Egypt, S00406), a certain *Eusebios, possibly *Thomas the Apostle (S00199), and other unnamed martyrs. Probably 5th/6th c.
E01755Optatus, bishop of Milevis (central North Africa), in his polemical treatise Against Parmenianus, writes that Donatist circumcelliones killed by the Roman army in the mid-fourth century were commemorated by altars and buried in Donatist basilicas. The latter practice, however, raised some doubts among Donatist clergy. Written in Latin, probably in Milevis, 364/c. 384.
E01762Augustine of Hippo, in a sermon preached in an unknown city of central North Africa, states that it is the feast of unnamed martyrs. Exposition on Psalm 63, written in Latin, 392/417
E01763Augustine of Hippo, in a sermon preached almost certainly in Carthage (central North Africa), invites the congregation to gather on the morrow at the table (mensa) of *Cyprian (bishop and martyr of Carthage, S00411), and also mentions a feast of unnamed martyrs which will be celebrated on the following day. Exposition on Psalm 80, written in Latin, 392/417.
E01766Gregory of Nyssa, in his Letter 22 of the 380s, to Amphilochios of Iconium, requests his assistance with finding builders for the construction of a martyr-church (martyrion). He gives a detailed description of the building. Written in Greek in Cappadocia (central Asia Minor).
E01779Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon, possibly at Hippo Regius (central North Africa) on the eve of a feast of martyrs, in which he mentions the memorial shrine (memoria) at Rome of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), visited by emperors. Exposition on Psalm 140, written in Latin, possibly in 397/405.
E01782Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon at a feast of unnamed martyrs, possibly at Hippo Regius (central North Africa). Exposition on Psalm 141, written in Latin, possibly in 397/405.
E01784Floor-mosaic with a Greek inscription commemorating the paving of an oratory (eukterion) of unnamed 'gloriously triumphant' martyrs, or just possibly the Forty Martyrs of Sebasteia (S00103). Found at El-Bire, to the south east of Hierapolis-Bambyke (north Syria/Cyrrhestica). Probably late antique.
E01791Greek inscription commemorating the construction of a martyr shrine (oratory/eukterion or martyrion). Found at Rbē'a/Ar-Rbej near Chalkis (north Syria). Probably late antique.
E01802Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon at a feast of unnamed martyrs, probably at Hippo Regius (central North Africa). Exposition on Psalm 40, written in Latin, possibly in 400/410.
E01820Two fragmentary Greek inscriptions, just possibly referring to a martyr whose name is lost. Found at Antioch-on-the-Orontes (north Syria). Probably late antique.
E01823One of the panels of the Yakto mosaic shows 'the workshops of the martyr shrine (martyrion)', possibly that of *Babylas (bishop and martyr in Antioch, S00061). Found at Yakto near Antioch-on-the-Orontes (north Syria). Second half of the 5th c.
E01825Greek graffiti with probable invocations of God as the Lord, and of unnamed martyrs. Found in a burial grotto at Seleukeia Pieria near Antioch-on-the-Orontes (north Syria). Probably late antique.
E01826Inscribed 'reliquary cross', commissioned as an ex-voto offering by a certain Ioannes. Provenance: Seleukeia/Seleucia ad Calycadnum in Isauria (southern Asia Minor) or Seleukeia/Seleucia Pieria near Antioch-on-the-Orontes (north Syria). 6th c. or later.
E01829Inscribed marble reliquaries from the 'Atrium church' in Apamea on the Orontes (central Syria), containing relics of *Kosmas and Damianos (brothers, physician martyrs of Syria, S00385), of *Theodore (probably the soldier and martyr of Amaseia and Euchaita, S00480), and of other 'various saints'. Probably 6th c.
E01833Gregory of Nyssa in his Letter 20 of c. 379, describes the private villa of his friend, Adelphios Scholastikos, at Ouanota in Cappadocia (central Asia Minor), mentioning an unfinished oratory dedicated to martyrs. Written in Greek in Cappadocia.
E01835Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon at the feast of unnamed martyrs, probably in Carthage (central North Africa). Exposition on Psalm 102, written in Latin, 392/417.
E01854Augustine of Hippo, in his Letter 29*, declines a request from Paulinus of Milan to write stories about martyrs, similar to those composed by Ambrose of Milan and the author of the Martyrdom of *Cyprian (bishop and martyr of Carthage, S00411), since he lacks the evidence to do this. Written in Latin, probably in Hippo Regius (central North Africa), early 5th c.
E01860Two fragmentary Greek building inscriptions, both for a martyr shrine (martyrion). Found at 'Ōdjeh near Apamea on the Orontes, and Androna (central Syria). Probably 5th-6th c.
E01872Greek inscriptions from the so-called 'church of the Apostles' at I'djāz near Apamea on the Orontes (central Syria), invoking the intercession of unnamed Apostles, and also unnamed prophets and martyrs, for the well-being of the emperors Theodosius I and Arcadius, and of other Christians. 383-395.
E01883Gregory of Nyssa in his Life of *Gregory the Miracle-Worker (bishop and missionary in Pontus, S00687), of the late 370s or the 380s, reports that, after the end of a persecution in the mid 3rd century, the saint established yearly celebrations for the martyrs in Neocaesarea of Pontus (northern Asia Minor), as a novel practice, aimed to facilitate the transition from paganism to Christianity. Written in Greek in Asia Minor.
E01902The Apostolic Constitutions, of 375/380, recommend that martyrs be honoured, invoking the examples of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) and *James ('brother of the Lord', S00058). It also condemns the veneration of false martyrs, and prohibits belching, debauchery, singing, and various pagan practices, perhaps associated with Christian feasts. Written in Greek, probably in Syria.
E01903Basil of Caesarea in his Homily 14, On the drunkards, delivered in the 370s, reproaches women of his congregation for drinking and dancing at the shrines of martyrs around Kaisareia/Caesarea of Cappadocia (central Asia Minor) on Easter Sunday. Written in Greek at Caesarea.
E01905Gregory of Nazianzus in his Letter 122, of the 380s, mentions the feast of unnamed martyrs at Arianzos in Cappadocia (central Asia Minor) on the 22 of the local month Dathousa (= 29 September). Written in Greek at Arianzos.
E01906Gregory of Nazianzus in his Letter 197, of the late 380s, to Gregory of Nyssa mentions a feast of martyrs celebrated probably at an unnamed place in Cappadocia. Written in Greek in Arianzos (central Asia Minor).
E01907Gregory of Nazianzus addresses his Letter 223, of the 380s, to the ascetic lady Thekla who lives with her children next to a shrine of martyrs. Written in Greek in Arianzos (central Asia Minor).
E01908Gregory of Nazianzus in his Letter 203, of the late 380s, mentions a shrine of martyrs on his estate of Karbale in Cappadocia (central Asia Minor), and refers to the land attached to it. Written in Greek in Arianzos (central Asia Minor).
E01925Coptic Homily on the Resurrection and the *Apostles (S00084) attributed to John Chrysostom (S00779), remarking on the higher nature of the Apostles over martyrs (S01122), because the latter only suffered in one place, while the former did so in multiple places; 9th century or earlier.
E01947Fragmentary Greek inscription commemorating possibly the construction of a martyr shrine (martyrion). Found at Salamiye (ancient Salamias), to the northeast of Ḥimṣ/Emesa (northwest Phoenicia). Probably 5th-7th c.
E01956The emperor Julian in his Letter 79 of 362, recounts his meeting in 354 with Pegasios, bishop of Illion, who regarded the veneration of pagan heroes as equivalent to that of the Christian martyrs. Written in Greek in Constantinople.
E01957Ammianus Marcellinus in his Res Gestae, written in the 380s, mentions the violent killing by a pagan mob in 361 of *Georgios of Cappadocia (bishop of Alexandria, S01145), along with the Christian officials Dracontius and Diodorus. Their remains are burned and thrown into the sea, lest they be venerated as martyrs by the Christians. Written in Latin in Rome.
E01958Asterius of Amasea, in his Homily 3, Against Avarice, delivered during a service celebrated on a feast of unnamed martyrs, refers to a crowd of pilgrims gathered for the annual feast, the shrine of the saints, and the edifying importance of their cult. He exhorts his audience to focus on worship rather than on trading at the market. Written in Greek in Amaseia/Amasea (northern Asia Minor), in the late 4th or early 5th c.
E01961Asterius of Amasea, in his Homily IX, On *Phokas (martyr of Sinope, S00052), delivered during a service celebrated at a shrine in Amaseia/Amasea (northern Asia Minor) with relics of Phokas and other martyrs, recounts Phokas’ martyrdom, refers to his shrines, relics, and miracles, and claims that he is the most famous of all martyrs. Written in Greek in Amaseia/Amasea (northern Asia Minor), in the late 4th or early 5th c..
E01973Fragmentary Syriac graffito, mentioning a martyr (whose name is lost), and possibly the construction of a church dedicated to him. Found at Burdaqli in Jabal Ḥalqa, to the west of Beroia/Aleppo (central Syria). Probably late antique.
E01978Floor-mosaic with a Greek building inscription for a martyr shrine (martyrion). Found in a church outside the citywalls at Dibsi Faraj/Athis/Neokaisareia (between Beroia/Aleppo and Rusafa, northeast Syria/Euphratensis). Dated 429.
E01992Greek building inscription for an unnamed martyr shrine (martyrion). Found at Aere (modern Al-Sanamayn) to the northwest of Bostra (Hauran, south Syria/north Roman province of Arabia). Probably the 6th c.
E02038The Latin Acts of the Conference of Carthage, held in 411, record that Catholics forbade the Donatists access to memorial shrines of unnamed martyrs in Vegesela (central North Africa).
E02041Greek inscription commemorating the construction of an unspecified martyr shrine (martyrion). Found at Riḥāb, between Bostra and Gerasa/Jerash (Jordan/the Roman province of Arabia). Dated 457/458.
E02042According to the Latin Acts of the Conference of Carthage (North Africa, AD 411), a Catholic bishop and a Donatist priest celebrated together a vigil, most probably preceding the feast of a local martyr in the city of Numidia in Mauretania Caesariensis (North Africa), some time before 411.
E02111The Canons of the Council of Laodicea, of the late 4th c., forbid heretics to enter churches and martyr-shrines, and orthodox Christians to visit and pray at shrines of heretical martyrs. Written in Greek at Laodikeia/Laodicea of Phrygia (west central Asia Minor).
E02113The Canons of the Council of Laodicea, of the late 4th c., forbid the celebration of feasts of martyrs on days of fast; during Lent they are to be celebrated only on Saturdays and Sundays. Written in Laodikeia/Laodicea of Phrygia (west central Asia Minor).
E02140Asterius of Amasea, in his Homily X, On the Holy Martyrs, delivered during a festival of unnamed local martyrs, offers an apologia and justification of the cult of saints and its practices, replying to criticism by pagans and Eunomian Christians. Written in Greek at Amaseia/Amasea of Pontus (northern Asia Minor), in the late 4th or early 5th c..
E02173Two Greek building inscriptions for a martyr shrine (martyrion) of an unnamed saint. Found at Shaqrā, to the north of Izra/Zorava, between Bostra and Aere (Roman province of Arabia). Dated, probably 536.
E02179Gregory of Tours, in his Histories (6.6), describes miracles effected by *Hospicius (ascetic and recluse near Nice, ob. 581, S01178). In c. 574, foretells the coming of Lombard invaders to Nice (southern Gaul), warns its residents, then faces down the soldiers. He cures several people: a deaf and dumb man from Angers (in north-west Gaul), who was travelling to Rome to seek a cure from the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008) and from *Laurence (deacon and martyr of Rome, S00037) and the other martyrs of the city; a blind man called Dominicus; two women possessed by demons. Hospicius predicts his own death. Gregory has heard that Hospicius' Life had been written by many authors. The man from Angers, whom Gregory met and talked with, was travelling to Rome with a deacon who planned to collect relics of the Apostles and other saints. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 581/594.
E02207Greek building inscription for a martyr shrine (martyrion) of an unnamed saint. Found at Umm az-Zeitūn, to the north of Bostra and Dionysias (Roman province of Arabia). Probably 6th-7th c.
E02212Fragmentary list in Greek of saints' days, presumably from the area of Hermopolis (Middle Egypt), with entries for *Severos (bishop of Antioch, ob. 538, S00262), *Kopres (companion of Patermouthios, S01190), *Peter (bishop and martyr of Alexandria, S00247), *Gregory the Illuminator (converter of Armenia, S00251), *Horouonchios (martyr, S01187), *Sarapion, (Egyptian martyr from Panephosi, §S02038), and *Drosis (daughter of Hadrian, S01189), as well as various unnamed martyrs (S00060), datable to the 7th/8th century.
E02236Fragmentary Greek inscription mentioning martyrs whose names are lost. Found at Bostra (Roman province of Arabia). Probably 6th c.
E02241Greek inscription probably mentioning a martyr shrine (martyrion) of unnamed saints. Found at Umm al-Mayādīn to the northwest of Bostra (Roman province of Arabia). Probably 5th-6th c.
E02287Sozomen, in his Ecclesiastical History, reports that in 362/3, after the destruction of the pagan shrine of Daphne near Antioch, the emperor Julian ordered the destruction of shrines of *unnamed martyrs built near the temple of Apollo at Didyma (western Asia Minor). Written in Greek at Constantinople, 439/450.
E02297John Chrysostom, in his homily On the Ascension, delivered during a service for the feast of the Ascension of Christ held at the extramural martyr shrine of the Romanesian Gate of Antioch (Syria), records how Bishop Flavianos had the relics of the saints exhumed and deposited in a separate place for veneration, in order to separate them from the burials of heretics. Written in Greek at Antioch, 386/397.
E02298John Chrysostom delivers a homily On the Cemetery and the Cross during a Good Friday service held at the Antiochene extramural shrine (martyrion) and cemetery, known as the Koimeterion. The service is held there, because the site has more graves than the other martyria of Antioch. Written in Greek at Antioch (Syria), 386/397.
E02361Greek inscription commemorating the construction of a church, perhaps dedicated to unnamed Holy Prophets, Apostles, and Martyrs. Found at Gerasa/Jerash (Roman province of Arabia). Dated 464/465.
E02363Gregory of Tours, in his Histories (9.40), recounts how in 568-569 queen Radegund sent envoys to the East to obtain relics of the Holy Cross, and of unspecified *Apostles (S00084) and *martyrs (S00060), for her monastery in Poitiers (western Gaul). Bishop Maroveus of Poitiers refused to deposit the relics in the monastery, so Eufronius, bishop of Tours, performed the ceremony instead. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 589/594.
E02365Floor-mosaic with a Greek inscription commemorating the completion of an unnamed martyr shrine (martyrion), the so-called 'church of Prokopios'. Found at Gerasa/Jerash (Roman province of Arabia). Dated 526 or 527.
E02396Floor-mosaics with Greek and Christian-Palestinian Aramaic inscriptions commemorating the restoration and paving of an unnamed martyr shrine (martyrion). Found at Khirbat al-Kursi in the suburbs of Philadelphia/Amman (Roman province of Arabia/Jordan). Probably late 6th or early 7th c.
E02419Gregory of Tours, in his Histories (10.31), recounts how he, the nineteenth bishop of Tours, sought relics of the *Theban Legion (soldiers and martyrs of Agaunum, S00339), which he had been told were in Tours; found the reliquary with their relics and the relics of unnamed martyrs and saints in the church of *Martin (ascetic and bishop of Tours, ob. 397, S00050); kept vigils and masses to honour the saints; placed some of these relics in the cathedral of Tours; placed relics of *Cosmas and Damianus (brothers, physician martyrs of Syria, S00385) in Martin’s cell adjoining the cathedral; decorated the walls of Martin’s church; built the new baptistery there and placed in it relics of *John the Baptist (S00020) and *Sergius (soldier and martyr of Rusafa, S00023); placed relics of *Benignus (martyr of Dijon, S00320) in the old baptistery at Martin's church; and wrote seven books of Miracles and The Life of the Fathers; all in 573-594. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 591/594.
E02425Floor-mosaic with a Greek inscription from the Church of the Holy Martyrs (el-Khader) at
Madaba (Roman province of Arabia/Jordan) with a short poem encouraging readers to venerate unnamed martyrs. Remnants of an altar with a reliquary socket. Probably late 6th-early 7th c.
E02476John Chrysostom composes and delivers a homily On All the Martyrs during a festival held in Constantinople for an unnamed martyr from Egypt. Written in Greek at Constantinople, 397/407.
E02537Fragmentary Greek inscription from an architrave or altar (?), referring to martyrs whose names are lost. Found at Madaba (Roman province of Arabia/Jordan). Probably 6th c.
E02557Floor-mosaics with Greek dedicatory inscriptions commemorating the construction of a church dedicated to *Lot (Old Testament patriarch, S01234) and *Prokopios (probably the martyr of Skythopolis, S00118), invoking the God of these saints and the God of unnamed martyrs. Found at Khirbat al-Mukhayyat near Mount Nebo (Roman province of Arabia/Jordan). Probably 558 or 573.
E02563Two floor-mosaics with Greek inscriptions: one (of probably c. 550-600) invoking the intercession of unnamed saints for an 'abbot of the whole desert', a stylite, and other monks; the other, dated 762, commemorating the restoration of a monastic chapel (septe mone) dedicated to *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033). Found at Wadi 'Ayn al-Kanisah on Mount Nebo (Roman province of Arabia/Jordan).
E02567John Chrysostom delivers a homily On the Holy Martyrs during a festival at Antioch, held on 2 August, after the feast of the *Maccabean Martyrs (pre-Christian Jewish martyrs of Antioch, S00303); the celebration concerns unnamed martyrs of the countryside near Antioch. John refers to the power of relics, which is not diminished by their partition. Written in Greek at Antioch (Syria), 386/397.
E02590Floor-mosaics with three Greek building inscriptions, invoking the God of Theodore (probably *Theodore, soldier and martyr of Amaseia and Euchaita, S00480; or possibly *Theodoros, martyr of Amman in Arabia, S01215), and other martyrs whose names are lost. Found reportedly at Suf, to the north of Gerasa/Jerash, within the probable territory of Bostra (Roman province of Arabia/Jordan). Dated 505.
E02596Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon on the feast of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008), addressing the question of why the memorial shrines (memoriae) of these apostles, of *Laurence (deacon and martyr of Rome, S00037), and of other martyrs did not save Rome from being captured by its enemies in 410. Sermon 296, delivered in Latin, probably in Carthage (North Africa) in 411.
E02599Greek inscription commemorating the construction of an unnamed martyr shrine (martyrion), possibly at a monastery. Found possibly in al-Rasif on the Edom Plateau, to the south of Buseira (ancient Bosor in Edom), near Petra or in Arindela/Gharandal (south Jordan/Roman province of Palaestina III). Dated possibly 607/608 or 786 or 788.
E02613Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon on the feast of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008), expressing his disappointment that it is less well attended by the faithful that those of other martyrs. Sermon 298, delivered in Latin in Hippo Regius (North Africa), possibly in 426/430.
E02628John Chrysostom, in his Homily on Martyrs, delivered during a festival, probably at Antioch, advises his audience to abstain from taverns and drinking after the service, and invites them to pray at the tomb and the relics, and to anoint themselves with holy oil. Written in Greek, probably at Antioch (Syria), 386/397.
E02632Floor-mosaics with Greek inscriptions commemorating the paving and restoration of an unnamed martyr shrine (martyrion). Found at Khallit 'Īsā Ṣīr/Bayt Īdis (ancient kome Seron?) near Irbid in north Jordan (Roman province of Arabia). Dated, possibly 612/613.
E02634John Chrysostom delivers an encomium On the Holy Martyrs during a festival held after Pentecost for a group of martyrs who were burned on an iron ladder/grill. Written in Greek at Antioch (Syria) or Constantinople, 386/407.
E02652Greek epitaph for the deaconess Theodora who sought refuge at 'a great martyr' (certainly *Theodore, soldier and martyr of Amaseia and Euchaita, S00480). Found at Çorum in the territory of Amaseia, close to Euchaita (Helenopontus, northeastern Asia Minor). Late antique.
E02655Floor-mosaic with a fragmentary Greek inscription commemorating the restoration of the pavement of an oratory (eukterion) of a martyr whose name is lost. Found at Riḥāb, between Bostra and Gerasa/Jerash (Jordan/the Roman province of Arabia). Probably 6th or 7th c.
E02661John Chrysostom delivers a homily In the Emperor's Presence, on the second day of a festival for relics of unnamed martyrs brought to Constantinople in c. 400; the ceremony is attended by the emperor and his guards. Written in Greek at Constantinople.
E02662Floor-mosaic with a Greek inscription commemorating the paving of an unnamed martyr shrine (martyrion), probably at a monastery. Floor-mosaics in the aisles show narrative scenes of the Book of Daniel (with *Daniel, the Old Testament Prophet, 00727, and *Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, Old Testament Martyrs, S01198), an image of *Moses (S00241), and presumably of the Adoration of the Magi (S00180). Found at Tell Ya‘amun, to the south of en-Nu'eiyima, between al-Husn and Jerash (Jordan/Roman province of Arabia). Dated, perhaps AD 500.
E02701Floor mosaic with a Greek inscription commemorating the construction of a church of unnamed martyrs. Found at Khirbat Majed near Shajarah, Irbid, and Kapitolias/Beit Ras, to the southeast of the Sea of Galilee (Jordan/Roman province of Palaestina II or Roman province of Arabia). Probably 6th-7th c.
E02703Scarcely legible Greek inscription with an invocation, just possibly of the God of unnamed martyrs. Found at Khirbat al-Khalidi near modern 'Aqaba, at the north end of the Gulf of 'Aqaba (Jordan/Roman province of Palaestina III). Probably 6th-8th c. or later.
E02704Greek building inscription for an unnamed martyr shrine (martyrion). Found at al-Mu'azzaq near 'Udruh and Tafila/probably ancient Augustopolis, to the east of Petra (Jordan/Roman province of Palaestina III). Probably 6th-7th c.
E02708Fragmentary Greek inscription with a list of relics probably deposited by the empress Eudocia at the church of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) in Jerusalem, to the north of the north city gate. Found in Jerusalem (Roman province of Palaestina I). Possibly 460.
E02712Floor-mosaic with a Greek inscription commemorating the construction of a church (oikos) of unnamed martyrs. Found at Khirbet Sheibun near Beit Ṣafafa in the southwest outskirts of Jerusalem. Dated: possibly c. 596 or 7th-8th c.
E02723Floor-mosaic with a Greek inscription containing an acclamation of unnamed martyrs. Found at 'Ein Kerem, southwest outskirts of Jerusalem (Roman province of Palaestina I), at the cave traditionally identified as the birthplace of John the Baptist. Probably 5th-7th c.
E02725Palladius of Helenopolis, in his Historical Dialogue on the Life of John Chrysostom, of 408 or shortly after, mentions the 'shrines of the martyrs' by the Romanesian gate of Antioch (Syria). Written in Greek at Syene (Aswan, Upper Egypt).
E02727Palladius of Helenopolis, in his Historical Dialogue on the Life of John Chrysostom, of 408 or shortly after,reports that, on Holy Saturday 405, the bishops supporting John Chrysostom met the imperial couple at a shrine of martyrs in Constantinople. Written in Greek at Syene (Aswan, Upper Egypt).
E02730Two marble fragments, possibly of an inscribed reliquary, with remnants of a label in Greek, referring to saints/martyrs whose names are lost. Found at 'Ein Kerem, southwest outskirts of Jerusalem (Roman province of Palaestina I). Probably 5th-7th c.
E02741Gregory of Nazianzus, in his First Oration against Julian, of 361/363, reports that the emperor Julian the Apostate and his brother, Gallus, built a shrine for martyrs during their youth; the work sponsored by Julian was miraculously rejected and destroyed. Written in Greek at Nazianzus (central Asia Minr).
E02797Greek inscription on a fragment of a bread stamp, probably referring to three saints whose name are lost, differently identified by modern editors. Found at Mount Zion in Jerusalem (Roman province of Palaestina I). Probably late antique.
E02838In Eugippius' Life of *Severinus (hermit and monk in Noricum, ob. 482, S00848), the saint obtains relics of *Gervasius and Protasius (martyrs of Milan, S00313), and adds them to relics of other (unnamed) martyrs in his monastery at Favianis (on the upper Danube), between around 454 and 482. Written in Latin near Naples (southern Italy) in 511.
E02848A Coptic Discourse of Shenoute (abbot of the White Monastery near Sohag in Upper Egypt) referring to saints and martyrs as role models for Christian leaders; written in the 5th century.
E02953The early seventh-century Georgian version of the Lectionary of Jerusalem commemorates on 22 January, at the church of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), *All Martyrs (S01151) from Stephen to the present.
E02967Lid of a limestone reliquary, covered by four Greek inscriptions referring to *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), *Christophoros (martyr of Pamphylia, S00616), a certain *John (probably the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042), and the *Apostles, all of them with unnamed companions (?). Unknown provenance (possibly Syria), now in the Benaki Museum (Athens). Probably 5th-6th c.
E02968The North-West Church at Hippos/Sussita (Roman province of Palaestina II) provides us with important archaeological evidence for the cult of saints. The finds from its south pastophorion (apparently a martyr's chapel), north apse, and an annexed room include a sealed reliquary with a metal rod for contact with the relics within, a flask with bone fragments, a lamp holder, etc. Probably 6th-7th c.
E02969Festal Letter (41), in Coptic, of Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, accusing the Melitians of digging up martyrs’ bodies and exposing them to anyone who wishes to see them for reasons of greed and financial gain, written in 369 AD.
E02970Festal Letter (42), in Coptic, of Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, discusses healings at martyr shrines, emphasising that it is Christ who heals through the martyrs and condemning any belief that the saints speak through demons; written in AD 370.
E02995Paulinus of Nola, in a letter to Sulpicius Severus of c. 403 (Letter 31), responds to a request for saintly relics for the new church Sulpicius has built at Primuliacum (southern Gaul), by saying that he needs all the relics he has for his own church at Nola (southern Italy); however he sends Severus a fragment of the True Cross. The letter also refers to a certain Silvia in possession of relics of many eastern martyrs. Written in Latin at Nola (southern Italy).
E03335Palladius of Helenopolis in his Lausiac History recounts the story of an anonymous martyr of Corinth (South Balkans/Greece), which he read in a book of Hippolytus of Rome. Written in Greek at Aspuna or Ankyra (both Galatia, central Asia Minor), 419/420.
E03497Theodoret of Cyrrhus in a letter to the bishop of Antioch Theodotos mentions a festival of martyrs at the town of Meninga (north-east Syria). Written in Greek at Cyrrhus (north Syria), 423/429.
E03604Sermon by Valerianus, bishop of Cimiez (southern Gaul), in praise of martyrdom and of the intercessory power of the saints, written in Latin at Cimiez in the mid 5th century. Delivered on the occasion of the feast of an unnamed martyr, possibly *Pontius (martyr of Cimiez, S01486).
E03607Sermon by Valerianus, bishop of Cimiez (southern Gaul), in praise of martyrdom and of the intercessory power of the saints, written in Latin at Cimiez in the mid 5th century. Inlcudes references to an unnamed local martyr, possibly *Pontius (martyr of Cimiez, S01486).
E03608Sermon by Valerianus, bishop of Cimiez (southern Gaul), in praise of martyrdom and of the intercessory power of the saints, written in Latin at Cimiez in the mid 5th century. Includes references to an unnamed local martyr and his relics (including their spread to distant places), possibly *Pontius (martyr of Cimiez, S01486), and also to *Thekla/Thecla (follower of the Apostle Paul, S00092).
E04019Red limestone reliquary with multiple compartments, found in the chancel of the South-West Church at Hippos/Sussita (Roman province of Palaestina II). Probably late 6th-early 7th c.
E04098Floor-mosaic with a fragmentary Greek inscription, probably referring to a martyr or martyr shrine (martyrion). Found at Hanotha/Hanita/Khirbet Hanuta near El Bassah (northwest Galilee/Roman province of Phoenicia I). Probably 6th c.
E04122Floor mosaic with a fragmentary Greek inscription referring to an unnamed martyr, possibly *Basileios (martyr of Scythopolis, S01150). Found in the so-called 'church of the martyr' at Scythopolis/Skythopolis (Roman province of Palaestina II). Presumably mid-6th c.
E04167Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon, probably on the feast of martyrs, emphasising that it is the cause, not the suffering, that makes one a martyr. Sermon 327, delivered in Latin, possibly in Hippo, probably before 411.
E04220A confession of faith, which any Jew converting to Christianity within the Visigothic kingdom was obliged to subscribe to, includes the promise to observe Sundays and the feasts of the martyrs. Latin law of King Ervig issued in 680 in Spain and included in the codification known as the Lex Visigothorum.
E04279Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon, on a feast of martyrs, emphasising that it is the cause, not the suffering, that makes a martyr, and encouraging his audience to celebrate the feast with sobriety. Sermon 328, delivered in Latin, possibly in Hippo, probably before 411.
E04280Greek epitaph for two men, father and son, described as life-long devoted servants of an unnamed martyr. Found at Elousa in the Negev desert (Roman province of Palaestina III). Dated 544/545.
E04316Greek list of districts/quarters from Arsinoe (Fayum) mentioning a quarter of *Thekla (possibly the follower of the Apostle Paul, S00092), of *Leontios (possibly the martyr of Tripolis , S00216), and of *the Martyrs (S00060); datable to the 6th/7th century.
E04333Greek inscriptions and graffiti found in the entrance hall at the North Church at Nessana/Auja Hafir in the Negev desert (Roman province of Palaestina III), invoking *Sergios (soldier and martyr of Rusafa, S00023), *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), the God of Stephen and Sergios, and the God of unnamed martyrs. It is possible, but very unlikely, that *Bakchos (soldier and martyr of Barbalissos, S00079) was invoked together with Sergios in one of the texts. Probably 5th-7th c.
E04336Greek inscriptions and graffiti found in the martyr shrine at the North Church at Nessana/Auja Hafir in the Negev desert (Roman province of Palaestina III): the epitaph for a presbyter naming his place of burial a martyr shrine (martyrion); an invocation, probably of the God of *Sergios (soldier and martyr of Rusafa, S00023) and *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030); and two inscriptions/graffiti in cursive script, of uncertain purpose, naming various saints. One of them is dated 464. Others: probably 5th-7th c.
E04355Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon, on a feast of martyrs. Sermon 320, delivered in Latin, possibly in Hippo, sometime between 391 and 430.
E04357Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon on a feast of martyrs. Sermon 330, delivered in Latin in an unidentified city of North Africa, sometime between 391 and 430.
E04362Augustine of Hippo preaches four sermons on the feasts of unnamed martyrs, referring to their sufferings. Sermons 331-334, delivered in Latin in unspecified cities of North Africa, sometime between 391 and 430.
E04371Fragmentary account of a desert trading company/caravan (koinotes), containing a prayer for the intercession of *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), *John (the Baptist, S00020), and 'all the holy martyrs'. Written in Greek on papyrus. Found at Nessana/Auja Hafir in the Negev desert (Roman province of Palaestina III). Probably late 6th/early 7th c.
E04377Scarcely legible texts, possibly referring to a martyr shrine (martyrion), and a saint or martyr whose name is lost. Written on papyri in Greek. Found at Nessana/Auja Hafir in the Negev desert (Roman province of Palaestina III). Probably 6th-7th c.
E04392Syriac building inscription for a martyr shrine (bēth sāhdē) built by a presbyter. Found at Kafr Nabu in north Syria, near Qalat Semaan, to the northwest of Beroia/Aleppo. Dated 525/526.
E04402Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon on a feast of martyrs. Sermon 335, delivered in Latin, possibly in Hippo Regius (North Africa) in 411/412.
E04434Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon on martyrs. Sermon 335B, delivered in Latin in an unknown city in North Africa, possibly in Hippo in 410/421.
E04445Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon on a feast of martyrs, in which he condemns the practice of drinking on such occasions. Sermon 335D, delivered in Latin in Hippo Regius (North Africa), sometime between 400 and 430.
E04446Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon, possibly on a feast of martyrs, in which he rejects the cult of the schismatic [i.e. Donatist] martyrs. Sermon 335G, delivered in Latin in an unknown city of North Africa, possibly in the 410s.
E04447Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon on the martyrs, emphasising that they did not care about the integrity of their bodies at death. Sermon 335F, delivered in Latin in an unknown city of North Africa, sometime between 391 and 430.
E04449Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon on a feast of martyrs, in which he encourages his congregation to follow their example, explains that they are friends of God, but were human, and so can be imitated. Sermon 335H, delivered in Latin in Hippo Regius (North Africa), possibly in 416/420.
E04469Greek inscription commemorating the construction of a memorion, probably a martyr shrine. Found at Quneitra near Paneas/Caesarea Philippi, in the Golan Heights, to the northeast of the Sea of Galilee (Roman province of Phoenicia Paralias). Probably 5th or 6th c.
E04470Greek inscriptions commemorating the construction of a martyr shrine (martyrion) by Flavios Balbion, probably a former soldier. Found at Jueîzeh, near Quneitra and Paneas/Caesarea Philippi, in the Golan Heights, to the northeast of the Sea of Galilee (Roman province of Phoenicia Paralias). Probably 6th c., once wrongly dated 472/473.
E04471Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon, probably on a feast of martyrs. Sermon 335I, delivered in Latin in an unknown city of North Africa, possibly Hippo Regius, sometime between 391 and 430.
E04486Augustine of Hippo preaches a sermon, probably on a feast of martyrs. Sermon 335J, delivered in Latin in an unknown city of North Africa, possibly Hippo Regius, sometime between 391 and 430
E04524Scarcely legible Greek inscription on a lintel, with a building inscription probably mentioning *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), and possibly a martyrion. Found at Ramsâniyye, near Quneitra and Paneas/Caesarea Philippi, in the Golan Heights, to the northeast of the Sea of Galilee (Roman province of Phoenicia Paralias). Probably 6th c.
E04544Rufinus of Aquileia, in his Church History, describes the Emperor Theodosius I's preparations for the war in the years 392-394, which included prayers at the tombs of the Apostles and martyrs. Written in Latin in Aquileia (northern Italy), c. 402.
E04558Lid of a white marble reliquary with a Syriac inscription labelling relics of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), *Thomas (the Apostle, S00199), Symeon the Stylite (the Elder, S00343), and of other unnamed martyrs. Now in İstanbul Archaeological Museums. Probably 5th or 6th c.
E04564Greek inscription commemorating the construction of an unnamed martyr shrine (martyrion). Found at Jubata El-Hashab in the Golan Heights (north Bashan), to the north of Quneitra (Roman province of Phoenicia). Probably 5th-6th c.
E04663Latin and Greek graffiti with invocations of Xystus/Sixtus II (bishop and martyr of Rome, S00201), and probably other deceased popes and martyrs. One of the texts mentions Jerusalem as the 'city of martyrs.' On a wall at the entrance to the 'crypt of the popes,' Cemetery of Callixtus, via Appia, Rome. Probably second half of the 4th - early 8th c.
E04683Latin graffito with an invocation of the holy spirits of unnamed martyrs, probably the souls of popes and martyrs buried in the cemetery of Callixtus. Found in the lower part of that cemetery, via Appia, Rome. Probably late 4th-early 5th c.
E04695Epitaph for a woman, possibly denoting a burial ad sanctos. Found in the lower part of the cemetery of Callixtus, via Appia, Rome. Probably 4th c.
E04696Epitaph for a mother and son, probably denoting a burial ad sanctos. Found in the lower part of the cemetery of Callixtus, via Appia, Rome. Probably 4th c.
E04727Latin inscription recording the purchase of a tomb (locus?) sited ‘ad martyres.’ Found in one of the crypts at the Cemetery of Callixtus, via Appia, Rome. Probably second half of the 4th c.
E04731Fragmentary Latin epitaph for a woman buried probably close to a saint whose name is lost. Found in the lower part of the Cemetery of Callixtus, via Appia, Rome. Probably late 4th - early 5th c.
E04732Fragmentary Latin inscription possibly referring to martyrs whose names are lost. Found in the lower part of the Cemetery of Callixtus, via Appia, Rome. Probably late 3rd or early 4th c.
E04733Two fragments of Latin epitaphs probably expressing a wish that the deceased would live 'among the saints,' or saying that they were buried 'among saints' (possible references to burials ad sanctos). Found in the lower part of the Cemetery of Callixtus, via Appia, Rome. Probably 5th c.
E04734Latin epitaph recording a burial near a saint whose name is lost. Found in the lower part of the Cemetery of Callixtus, via Appia, Rome. Probably second half of the 4th c.
E04735Two fragments of Latin epitaphs recording burials ad martyres /ad sanctos. Found in the lower part of the Cemetery of Callixtus, via Appia, Rome. Probably 5th c.
E04736Small fragment of a Latin inscription mentioning 'saints.' Possibly referring to a burial ad sanctos, or an epitaph for local martyrs. Found in the lower part of the Cemetery of Callixtus, via Appia, Rome. Probably 5th c.
E04737Fragmentary Greek epitaph recording a burial ‘with the saints’. Found in the lower part of the Cemetery of Callixtus, via Appia, Rome. Probably late 3rd c.
E04738Greek graffito expressing a wish that a certain Pontianos would ‘live in God' and probably with 'All the Saints.' Once wrongly identified with *Pontianus (bishop and martyr of Rome, S00169). Found in the lower part of the Cemetery of Callixtus, via Appia, Rome. Probably first half of the 4th c.
E05108Fragmentary Latin epitaph for a woman ‘united with saints’, probably recording a burial ad sanctos. Found at the cemetery ‘ad Catacumbas’, near the church of S. Sebastiano/Basilica Apostolorum, via Appia, Rome. Probably second half of the 4th c.
E05135Latin epitaph invoking the company of the 'holy spirits'/spirita sancta for the deceased. Found in the Cemetery of Praetextatus, via Appia, Rome. Dated 291.
E05158Fragmentary Latin epitaph for a former imperial agent (agens in rebus) possibly containing a reference to his burial 'among saints'. Found in the Cemetery of Praetextatus, via Appia, Rome. Late antique.
E05159Fragmentary Latin inscription expressing the hope that Christians will be saved from evil 'through the holy martyrs'. Found in the Cemetery of Praetextatus, via Appia, Rome. Probably late antique.
E05160Fragmentary Latin inscription invoking the 'holy spirits'/spirita sancta, probably of saints and martyrs. Found in the Cemetery of Praetextatus, via Appia, Rome. Late antique.
E05161Latin monumental epitaph for one or two martyr(s) whose name(s) is/are lost. Often identified as *Felicissimus and *Agapitus (both deacons of Xystus II and martyrs of Rome, S00202), but once, probably wrongly, thought to have been *Urbanus (pope and confessor/martyr of Rome, S00538). The inscription is sometimes considered as Damasan. Found in the Cemetery of Praetextatus, via Appia, Rome. Probably 4th c.
E05162Very fragmentary inscription possibly referring to the 'holy spirits'/spirita sancta, or to a female saint whose name is lost. Found in the Cemetery of Praetextatus, via Appia, Rome. Late antique.
E05163Fragmentary Latin epitaph with a tentatively restored formula invoking the 'peace with (unnamed) saints' to the deceased. Found in a small cemetery 'ad Vibiam' on the via Appia, Rome. Late antique.
E05170Latin epitaph, with Greek elements, for a boy whose soul is 'with the saints'. Found in the cemetery 'in vinea Eustachiorum', via Latina, Rome. Probably 4th c.
E05192Coptic Encomion on Apa *Apollo (S01968), Pachomian monk and founder of the monastery of *Isaak (S00276), presumably located near Herakleopolis Magna (Middle Egypt), attributed to Stephanos, bishop of Herakleopolis Magna, and presented on Apollo’s day of commemoration, relating the saint’s ascetic life as a monk in the Pachomian monastery at Pbow, his virtues and great humility, his wanderings, as well as his founding of the monastery of Isaak, his prophetic gift and numerous miracles performed during his lifetime as well as posthumously; written presumably in the later 6th century.
E05197The pilgrim Egeria, in her Itinerary, mentions, but does not name, the martyr shrines (martyria) and communities of monks which she saw when visiting Heroopolis (Lower Egypt). Written in Latin during Egeria's journey to the East, probably in 381-384.
E05208Ambrose of Milan, in his sermon Contra Auxentium (Against Auxentius), refers to his visits to tombs of the martyrs of Milan. Written in Latin in Milan (northern Italy), c. 386.
E05219Latin epitaph for a girl buried 'with saints'. Found in the Cemetery of Castulus, via Labicana, Rome. Probably 4th c.
E05223The pilgrim Egeria, in her Itinerary, describes her visit to Edessa (Mesopotamia), where she prayed at the tomb of *Thomas the Apostle (S00199), containing his 'entire body', read from his writings, and also visited other martyr shrines (martyria) in the city. Written in Latin during Egeria's journey to the East, probably in 381-384.
E05224The pilgrim Egeria, in her Itinerary, mentions martyr shrines (martyria) which she saw when visiting Batanis (Mesopotamia), but does not name the saints concerned. Written in Latin during Egeria's journey to the East, probably in 381-384.
E05235Latin epitaph with the pagan formula dis manibus sacrum, but generally considered Christian, invoking the holy spirits /spirita sancta on behalf of a deceased boy. Found in the cemetery of Castulus, via Labicana, Rome. Probably 4th c.
E05245The pilgrim Egeria, in her Itinerary, records her stay in Constantinople, where she visited martyr shrines (martyria) and churches of Apostles, but does not name them (the latter were probably *Andrew the Apostle S00288, *Luke the Evangelist, S00442, and *Timothy, the disciple of Paul the Apostle, S00466), and expresses her intention to visit the martyr shrine of *John (the Apostle and Evangelist S00042) at Ephesus (western Asia Minor). Written in Latin during Egeria's journey to the East, probably in 381-384.
E05249Hymn (Aeterna Christi munera), almost certainly by Ambrose of Milan, dedicated to all the martyrs. Written in Latin in Milan (northern Italy), probably after 386.
E05250In the 380s, Ammianus Marcellinus in his Res Gestae mentions the Roman commander, Sabinianus, who, while preparing for the war against the Persians visited tombs in Edessa, most probably that of *Thomas the Apostle (S00060) and possibly local martyrs. Written in Latin in Rome.
E05252Greek graffito invoking the intercession, on behalf of two monks, of *Helena (empress and mother of Constantine, ob. 328, S00185), and of unnamed martyrs, almost certainly those buried in the cemetery Ad Sanctos Marcellinum et Petrum /inter duas lauros, via Labicana, Rome, where the graffito was found. Probably late 7th - early 8th c.
E05271Latin and Greek graffiti and epitaphs with invocations to unnamed saints and martyrs, holy spirits/spirita sancta, and saints whose names are lost. Found in the cemetery ad Sanctos Marcellinum et Petrum /inter duas lauros, via Labicana, Rome. Probably 4th-6th c.
E05272Latin epitaph for a boy, possibly destined for service at a church of unnamed martyrs. Found in the cemetery Ad Sanctos Marcellinum et Petrum /inter duas lauros, via Labicana, Rome. Probably second half of the 4th c.
E05273Ammianus Marcellinus tells of victims of the Christian emperor Valentinian (364-375), commemorated in Milan (northern Italy) as the 'Innocents', and of an execution which was cancelled by the same emperor lest the sentenced persons be venerated as martyrs. Res Gestae, written in Latin in Rome, in the 380s.
E05277Latin epitaph with a poem praising the virtues of a certain reader Paulus, and possibly declaring him a descendant of martyrs (termed proceres). Found in the cemetery Ad Sanctos Marcellinum et Petrum /inter duas lauros, via Labicana, Rome. Probably late 4th - early 5th c.
E05280Very fragmentary inscription, possibly referring to relics of unnamed saints. Found in a small cemetery near the cemetery of Callixtus, via Appia, Rome. Late antique.
E05290Latin epitaph with a eulogy for a woman, saying that unnamed martyrs will 'offer testimony of her life to God and Christ' and will be her advocates (advocati). Probably from the cemetery of Cyriaca ad Sanctum Laurentium, via Tiburtina, Rome. Probably 4th c.
E05308Fragmentary Latin epitaph with an invocation of a female saint whose name is lost, and possibly of unnamed martyrs, asked to accept the soul of the deceased. Found in the ager Veranus, via Tiburtina, Rome. Probably from the cemetery of Cyriaca. Probably late 4th – early 5th c.
E05310Latin graffito with an invocation, probably of unnamed saints or martyrs, on behalf of a deceased man. Found in the cemetery of Cyriaca ad Sanctum Laurentium, via Tiburtina, Rome. Probably second half of the 4th c.
E05311Fragmentary Latin epitaph saying that the deceased enjoys the company of unnamed saints in her afterlife. Found in the cemetery of Cyriaca ad Sanctum Laurentium, via Tiburtina, Rome. Probably 5th c.
E05312Latin inscription recording the purchase of a tomb sited 'in the new crypt, behind the saints (in crypta nova, retro sanctos)' by two women. Found in the cemetery of Cyriaca ad Sanctum Laurentium, via Tiburtina, Rome. Probably second half of the 4th - first half of the 5th c.
E05313Very small fragment of a Latin epitaph, probably mentioning ‘holy spirits’/spirita sancta. Found in the cemetery of Cyriaca ad Sanctum Laurentium, via Tiburtina, Rome. Probably second 4th c.
E05324Maximus of Turin preaches a sermon (Sermon 16) for a feast in honour of multiple – perhaps all – martyrs. Delivered in Latin in Turin (northern Italy), between c. 397 and 408/423.
E05325Sermon, possibly by Maximus of Turin (Sermon 14), for a feast in honour of multiple – perhaps all – martyrs. If by Maximus, delivered in Latin in Turin (northern Italy), between c. 397 and 408/423.
E05326Maximus of Turin in a sermon (Sermon 36) refers to the practice of keeping vigils at, and making morning visits to, places dedicated to unnamed martyrs during Lent. Delivered in Latin in Turin (northern Italy), between c. 397 and 408/423.
E05334Fragmentary Latin inscription, possibly from an altar, probably with a poem referring to something located near 'blessed bones'/ossa beata. Found in the ager Veranus, via Tiburtina, Rome. Probably from the cemetery of Cyriaca. Probably 5th or 6th c.
E05344Zeno, bishop of Verona, preaches a sermon (Sermon 1.33) on Easter Sunday, in which he associates the commemoration of martyrdom with the season of Autumn. Delivered in Latin in Verona (northern Italy), 362/380.
E05345Greek Hymn to a *martyr (S00060), from the monastery of Epiphanius at Thebes (Upper Egypt), praising the saint in his shrine and invoking intercession; datable to the 6th/7th century.
E05359Latin epitaph invoking the holy spirits/spirita sancta on behalf of a deceased girl. Found in the cemetery of Novatianus on the via Tiburtina, Rome. Probably 3rd or 4th c.
E05372Coptic Martyrdom of Apa *Til (S02024), a young soldier from the village Sabarou (Lower Egypt) stationed at the garrison in Babylon (Lower Egypt) during the time of Diocletian, presented on his feast day (10 July) relating many miracles and visions which the saint encountered as well as numerous healing miracles he performed while imprisoned, others taking place later at the burial shrine in his home town; written most likely during the 6th/7th century.
E05387Fragmentary floor-mosaic with a Greek inscription commemorating the completion, or just paving, of a martyr shrine (martyrion). Found at Khirbet el-Bediyeh/Khirbat al-Biddīyah, neighbouring to the south-east with Ras ad-Dayr, near ancient Pella/Berenike/Philippeia and Gerasa/Jerash (Jordan/Roman province of Palaestina II). Dated, presumably 640-641.
E05395Coptic Martyrdom of Apa *Sarapion (S02038): a wealthy young man from Panephosi (Lower Egypt) is tried at different locations, among them Antinoopolis (Middle Egypt), repeatedly tortured, but healed and protected by *Michael, the Archangel (S00181); he effects numerous miracles, resulting in mass confessions of faith and 4,262 martyrdoms along the way; prior to his death, the saint is promised two shrines with healing cult, one at his hometown, one at the site of his martyrdom and burial, complete with consecration date (5 September) and feast day (22 January) celebrations; written most likely sometime during the 7th century.
E05441Coptic inscription from Wadi Sarga (Upper Egypt), with an invocation of *Moses (S00241), *Adam (S00772), *Peter (S00036), *John the Baptist (S00020), *John the virgin (S00042), the *Apostles (S00084), and the *Martyrs (S00060); datable to the 7th/8th century.
E05478Pope Pelagius I, in two letters of 556 (Epistolae Arelatenses, 48 and 49), refers to a gift to the Frankish king Childebert of relics of the Apostles *Peter and *Paul (S00036 and S00008), and of other unnamed saints and martyrs (S00518), to be delivered via Bishop Sapaudus of Arles. Written in Latin in Rome.
E05486Leo the Great, writing in Latin in Rome in 460, rebukes the bishops of Campania, Samnium and Picenum (southern Italy) for performing baptisms on the feast days of martyrs (S00060).
E05569The Greek Life of Hypatios by Kallinikos mentions that the monks of its hero’s community were sought after to serve as priests at shrines of martyrs founded by rich and important people in the region of Constantinople. Written at Rufinianae (near Constantinople), 447/450.
E05765Latin inscription in mosaic in the apse of the church of S. Agnese fuori le mura on the via Nomentana, Rome, built by Pope Honorius I (625-638). The inscribed poem praises the beauty of the scene depicted above: the crowning by God of *Agnes (virgin and martyr of Rome, S00097) with a martyr's crown, and the offering of the basilica to her by Honorius. An inscription on the same mosaic labels the image of Agnes.
E05880Romanos the Melodist composes his kontakion /canticum (hymn) 59, On All the *Martyrs (S01151). Written in Greek at Constantinople, in the mid-6th c.
E05962In the Whitby Life of *Gregory the Great, (bishop of Rome, ob. 604, S00838), the author recounts a miracle in Rome, involving the bleeding of cloths consecrated as contact relics of various unspecified *martyrs (S00060). Written in Latin by a monk or nun of Whitby (north-east Britain), 685/714, perhaps 704/14.
E06030In the Anonymous Life of *Cuthbert (bishop and anchorite of Lindisfarne (north-east Britain), ob. 687, S01955), the author records the translation of the saint 11 years after death, and how his body, vestments, and shoes were found incorrupt; and later, how a paralysed boy was healed by wearing those shoes. Written in Latin by a monk of Lindisfarne, 699/705.
E06101The Greek Homily, On the Holy Martyrs, surviving in only one fragment, is uncertainly ascribed to Hesychius of Jerusalem. Possibly fifth-century.
E06131Tírechán's Collection records diverse baptisms, ordinations, ecclesiastical foundations and miracles of *Patrick (missionary and bishop of Ireland, 5th c., S01962). Written in Latin in Ireland, probably shortly after c. 668. Overview entry
E06132Muirchú's Life of *Patrick (missionary and bishop of Ireland, 5th c., S01962) is set in Ireland, Britain and Gaul, and records in two books the saint's deeds, miracles and death. Written in Latin, probably at Armagh (north-east Ireland), 661/700, probably after c. 675/80. Overview entry
E06225An authentic Merovingian royal diploma records the foundation and endowment by Sigebert III, king of the Franks, of the monastery at Cugnon-sur-Semois (north-east Gaul) dedicated to the Apostle *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008), and *John (either the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042, or the Baptist, S00020), and other *unnamed martyrs (S00066). Written in Latin in Gaul, 643/8.
E06275The Life of *Audoin, Bishop of Rouen (also known as Dado, ob. 686, S02199) records the saint's life, death, translation and miracles, as well as his journeys to Rome and Cologne to collect the relics of other (unnamed) saints. Written in Latin in Gaul, probably in Neustria (northern Francia), c. 700.
E06280The Life of *Vivianus/Bibianus (bishop of Saintes, mid-5th c., S01282) is written in Latin in Gaul, probably in the 6th c. The Life mentions a visit by Vivianus to the shrine at Toulouse of *Saturninus (bishop and martyr of Toulouse, S00289), and installing relics sent from Rome in a church that he founded at Saintes.
E06310Coptic invocation possibly from Panopolis (Upper Egypt) addressing* Michael (the Archangel, S00181), *Gabriel (the Archangel, S00192), *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00030), *Zechariah (presumably the father of John the Baptist, S00597) and *5400 Martyrs (unnamed, S00060) to cause someone physical harm; datable to the end of the 4th/beginning of the 5th century.
E06382Gregory the Great in a papal letter (Register 8.28) of 598, to Eulogius, bishop of Alexandria (Lower Egypt), tells him the Roman Church has no full record of the martyrs' passions, but does have record of their places and days of martyrdom. Written in Latin in Rome.
E06387Gregory the Great in a papal letter (Register 9.45) of 598, to Bishops Iohannes of Sorrento, Agnellus of Terracina, Felix of Portus, Fortunatus of Naples, Primenius of Nocera, Gloriosus of Ostia and Albinus of Formia (all near Rome or in Campania, southern Italy), requests contact relics (sanctuaria) of martyrs buried in their dioceses, for a church to be built by Gregorius, former praefectus praetorio. Written in Latin in Rome.
E06397Gregory the Great with a papal letter (Register 9.148) of 599, to Secundinus, an anchorite monk, sends a gift of incense, aloes, storax and balsam, to be offered to the martyrs by the recipient, and asks for the intercession of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036) on behalf of the monk. Written in Latin in Rome.
E06424Gregory the Great in a papal letter (Register 11.56) of 601, to Mellitus, 'abbot among the Franks', then on his way to join Augustine in Britain, gives detailed instructions regarding the re-consecration of pagan temples in southern Britain, the installation of relics within them, and the celebration of the feast days of the martyrs, which was to still include killing and feasting on animals. Later incorporated into the Ecclesiastical History of Bede, writing at Wearmouth-Jarrow (north-east Britain), 731. Written in Latin in Rome.
E06472Jerome, in three of his Letters, mentions cult activities at Rome for the *Apostles (S00084) and *Martyrs (S00060). Letters 46, 107, and 127, written in Latin in Bethlehem (Palestine), in the years 386, 403, 412.
E06534Aldhelm, in his prose On Virginity, notes how some consider the *martyrs (S00060) to occupy an equal (or superior?) rank to virgins. Written in Latin in southern Britain, for the nuns at the monastery at Barking (south-east Britain), c. 675/686.
E06552Aldhelm, in his prose On Virginity, names *Silvester (bishop of Rome, ob. 336, S00397) as an exemplary virgin who, among other acts, was instrumental in the foundation of Constantinople, where there are many 'temples' built in honour of *saints (S00518). Written in Latin in southern Britain, for the nuns at the monastery at Barking (south-east Britain), c. 675/686.
E06677Cyril of Scythopolis composes the Life of *Sabas (‘the Sanctified’, monastic founder in Palestine, ob. 532, S00910), recounting his life as a miracle working ascetic and founder of numerous monasteries, adding a set of posthumous miracle stories, and including references to cults of several other saints. Written in Greek at the New Laura in Palestine, 555/557. Overview entry
E06683The Latin Gelasian Sacramentary (or 'Liber Sacramentorum Romanae Ecclesiae'), probably compiled around 750 near Paris using earlier material from Rome, records generic prayers to saints.
E06875Pope Siricius I, in a letter of 384/395 to Himerius, bishop of Tarragona, condemns a practice that has sprung up of baptism being carried out on many Christian feast days, including those of apostles and martyrs. Written in Latin in Rome.
E06877A letter of 535, from the African bishops to Pope John II in Rome, mentions the many bodies of martyrs in the basilica of Faustus in Carthage (North Africa). Written in Latin in Carthage.
E06933The Book of the Angel outlines the privileges of the church at Armagh (north-east Ireland) associated with *Patrick (missionary and bishop of Ireland, 5th c., S01962), based in part on the honour due to (its relics of) *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), and *Laurence (deacon and martyr of Rome, S00037), as well as a relic of the blood of Christ. An addendum delineates the relationship between the churches in Ireland of Patrick and those of *Brigit (abbess of Kildare, ob. c. 525, S01885). Written in Latin at Armagh, perhaps as early as c. 640/60.
E07035Coptic Martyrdom of the Seven martyrs (S00060), one of them being Apa *Paule, another Apa *Papnouti (S00882), from unknown Egyptian provenance, presumably written during the 6th century. Skeleton entry
E07375Sophronius of Jerusalem, in his Miracles of the Saints Cyrus and John (36), recounts how *Kyros and Ioannes/Cyrus and John (physician and soldier, martyrs of Egypt, S00406), through multiple appearances in dreams healed from gout and converted Theodoros, an heretical follower of Julian of Halicarnassus, at their shrine at Menouthis (near Alexandria, Lower Egypt). An icon is described which represented Christ, Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033) and John (the Baptist, S00020), surrounded by prophets, apostles and martyrs. Written in Greek in Alexandria, 610/615.
E07432Cummian, in his letter On the Easter Controversy, reports how in 631 a testimony concerning the dating of Easter was sworn over relics of unspecified martyrs in Rome; and that, when these relics had been brought back to Ireland, healing miracles were performed through them. Written in Latin in southern Ireland, 632/3.
E07473Very fragmentary Latin inscriptions referring to some martyrs whose names are lost, probably *Alexander and *Eventius (bishop and priest, martyrs of Rome, S00127). Found in the cemetery of Saint Alexander on the via Nomentana, Rome. Probably 5th c. or later. [provisional entry]
E07474Latin verse inscription in two elegiac couplets deploring sacrilegious damage by barbarians to unnamed 'well-deserved ones (meriti)'. Now lost, but probably from the cemetery of Saint Alexander on the via Nomentana, Rome. Probably mid- or second half of the 6th c., possibly 537-555. [provisional entry]
E07475Very fragmentary Latin epitaph from the cemetery of Saint Alexander on the via Nomentana, Rome, recording the date of death of the buried person as the feast (dies natalis) of unnamed martyrs, probably *Alexander, Eventius and Theodolus (bishop, priest, and deacon, and martyrs of Rome, S00127) venerated in this cemetery. Could we write: Probably 3rd c., perhaps 276. Very tentatively dated 276 (by a restored consular date). [provisional entry]
E07477Latin epitaph invoking an unnamed martyr, possibly *Alexander, Eventius or Theodolus (bishop, priest, and deacon, martyrs of Rome, S00127). Found in the cemetery of Saint Alexander on the via Nomentana, Rome. Probably second half of the 4th c. [provisional entry]
E07478Latin epitaph just possibly referring to five saints. Probably from a cemetery on the via Nomentana, Rome. Possibly 3rd c. [provisional entry]
E07480Latin verse inscription praising pope Siricius (384-399) as a generous restorer of tombs of unnamed martyrs. Now lost, but probably displayed in the Cemetery of Priscilla, or elsewhere on the via Salaria, Rome. [provisional entry]
E07494Very fragmentary Latin inscription just possibly referring to relics of unnamed saints. Found in the Cemetery of Priscilla on the via Salaria, Rome. Probably first half of the 4th c. [provisional entry]
E07507Fragmentary Latin inscription, probably commemorating the deposition of relics of saints. Dougga (Africa Proconsularis, north Africa), 4th/6th century.
E07516Very fragmentary Latin epitaph once considered as just possibly referring to a martyr whose name is lost, or *Chrysanthus (chaste man and martyr of Rome, S00306). Now lost, but seen in the Catacombs of Saint Saturninus on the via Salaria, Rome. Probably late 3rd/early 4th c. [provisional entry]
E07518Very small fragments of probably two Damasan inscriptions, possibly referring to martyrs whose names are lost. Found in the Catacombs of the Jordani (Catacomba dei Giordani) on the via Salaria, Rome. Probably 366-384. [provisional entry]
E07520Greek epitaph for a woman 'laid in the holy martyrion'. Found in the Cemetery of the Jordani (Catacomba dei Giordani) on the via Salaria, Rome. Probably late 3rd/early 4th c. [provisional entry]
E07562Caesarius, bishop of Arles, in two sermons (Sermons 13 and 55), inveighs against those who attend the feasts of saints only in order to drink, sing and dance. Written in Latin at Arles (southern Gaul), 503/542.
E07738Gregory of Tours, in his Histories (2.2), describes the martyrdom of an unnamed girl in Spain by the Vandals, c. 420s. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 575/594.
E07993The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor states that when the emperor Constantine entered Rome he ordered all relics of the *martyrs (S00060) to be collected for burial. Chronicle compiled in the Byzantine Empire in the early 9th c., using extracts from earlier Greek texts.
E08012The Rules for monks and nuns produced by Aurelianus, bishop of Arles (ob. 551) order that three or four masses are to be held on feasts of the martyrs, and that their Passions are to be read out. Written in Latin at Arles, southern Gaul, 546/551.
E08125Cyprian, bishop of Carthage (central North Africa), in a letter of 250, encourages his presbyters to write down the dates of the martyrs' deaths, in order that they be properly commemorated. Written in Latin in Carthage, 250.