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The Cult of Saints in Late Antiquity


from its origins to circa AD 700, across the entire Christian world


Mosaics in the nave of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo in Ravenna (northern Italy) depicting twenty-two female saints, preceded by the three Magi, processing towards the Virgin and Child, and twenty-six male saints, probably originally preceded by *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), processing towards Christ; created under Bishop Agnellus, 557/570.

Evidence ID

E06046

Type of Evidence

Images and objects - Wall paintings and mosaics

Inscriptions - Inscribed architectural elements

Mosaics in Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna

Two rows of mosaics depict processions of saints on the walls of the nave of the Sant'Apollinare Nuovo. These mosaics are depicted beneath others, set up during the reign of Theoderic, which depict unlabelled figures: probably prophets and evangelists.

On the left-hand wall, twenty-two female saints are led by the Three Magi from the port and walled city of Classe (labelled CIVI(TAS) CLASSIS) towards the enthroned *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033) with the Christ Child, who are flanked by four angels. All the saints are haloed, bear crowns and are dressed in elaborate court dress. Unlike the men (see below), all have essentially the same youthful features. The only saint with a distinguishing attribute is Agnes, who is accompanied by a lamb (a pun on her name - the Latin for a lamb is agnus; furthermore, in her Martyrdom (E02475 at §14), she appears to her parents after death accompanied by a snow-white lamb).

The saints depicted are listed below in order, from the front of the procession moving backwards:

[+
S̅C̅S̅CASPAR] (*Caspar, one of the Magi of the Nativity Story, S00180).

[+S̅C̅S̅MELCHIOR] (*Melchior, one of the Magi of the Nativity Story, S00180).

[+S
̅C̅S̅BALTHASSAR] (*Balthasar, one of the Magi of the Nativity Story, S00180).

+S̅C̅A̅EVFIM[IA] (*Euphemia, martyr of Chalcedon, S00017).

+S̅C̅A̅PELAGIA (*Pelagia, virgin and martyr of Antioch, S01093).

+S̅C̅A̅AGATHE (*Agatha, virgin and martyr of Catania, S00794).

+S̅C̅A̅AGNES (*Agnes, virgin and martyr of Rome, S00097).

+S̅C̅A̅EVLALIA (*Eulalia, virgin and martyr of Mérida, S00407).

+S̅C̅A̅CECILIA (*Caecilia, virgin and martyr of Rome, S00146).

+S̅C̅A̅LVCIA (*Lucia, virgin and martyr of Syracuse, S00846).

+S̅C̅A̅CRISPINA (*Crispina, of Thagora, martyred at Theveste, S00905).

+S̅C̅A̅VALERIA (*Valeria, confessor/martyr of Milan, S02238). [She was the wife of Vitalis, S02826, and mother of Gervasius and Protasius, S00313, who all appear in the male procession.]

+S̅C̅A̅VINCENTIA (*Vincentia, of uncertain identity, S02920).

+S̅C̅A̅PERPETVA (*Perpetua, martyr of Carthage, companion of Felicitas, S00009).

+S̅C̅A̅FELICITAS (*Felicitas, martyr of Carthage, companion of Perpetua, S00009).

+S̅C̅A̅IVSTINA (*Iustina, virgin and martyr of Padova, S02321).

+S̅C̅A̅ANASTASIA (*Anastasia, martyr of Sirmium and Rome, S00602).

+S̅C̅A̅DARIA (*Daria, husband of Chrysanthus and martyr of Rome, S00306). [Chrysanthus appears in the male procession.]

+S̅C̅A̅EMERENTIAN(A) (*Emerentiana, virgin and martyr of Rome, S00496).

+S̅C̅A̅PAVLINA (*Paulina, of uncertain identity, probably the martyr of Rome buried on the via Aurelia, S00552).

+S̅C̅A̅VICTORIA (*Victoria, virgin and martyr of Picenum, companion of Anatolia, S01406).

+S̅C̅A̅ANATOLIA (*Anatolia, virgin and martyr of Picenum, companion of Victoria, S01406).

+S̅C̅A̅CRISTINA (*Cristina, martyr of Tyre, and also of Bolsena, S00907).

+S̅C̅A̅SAVINA (Sabina, of uncertain identity, possibly *Sabina, martyr of Rome, S01546).

S̅C̅A̅EUGINIA (*Eugenia, martyr of Rome, S00401). [*Protus and Hyacinthus, S00464, towards the end of the male procession, were her eunuch slaves, and her companion martyrs.]


On the right-hand wall, a similar procession of twenty-five male martyrs are led by *Martin (ascetic and bishop of Tours, ob. 397, S00050) from the palace of Ravenna (labelled PALA TIVM) towards the enthroned Christ, who is flanked by four angels. All are haloed and bear crowns. All wear sandals and a tunic with two black vertical stripes (clavi), topped by a cloak (himation or pallium), draped over one or both shoulders and decorated with two Greek letters. The tunics and cloaks are all white, with two exceptions: the cloak worn by Martin is purple, and the tunic worn by Laurence is golden. The faces of these male saints are differentiated by their hair and beards: some are clean-shaven, some have dark hair and short beards, and some have white hair and beards, those of Apollinaris and Polycarp being long and pointed. The figures of Cornelius and Iohannes gesture with one hand towards the figures that follow them: Cyprian and Paulus, respectively.

The saints are as follows, again listed from the front of the procession:

It is very likely that the first saint in the procession, before damage in the 18th century, was *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030): see the Discussion.


[+S̅C̅S̅MA]RTINVS (*Martin, ascetic and bishop of Tours, ob. 397, S00050).

+S̅C̅S̅CLEMIS (*Clemens, bishop of Rome, martyr of the Crimea, S00111).

+S̅C̅S̅SYSTVS (*Xystus/Sixtus, bishop and martyr of Rome, S00201). [Xystus' story is linked with that of the next two saints, Laurentius and Hippolitus, in a single martyrdom account, E02513.]

+S̅C̅S̅LAVRENTIVS (*Laurentius, deacon and martyr of Rome, S00037).

+S̅C̅S̅YPPOLITVS (*Hippolitus, martyr of Rome, S00509).

+S̅C̅S̅CORNELIVS (*Cornelius, bishop and martyr of Rome, S00172).

+S̅C̅S̅CYPRIANVS (*Cyprian, bishop and martyr of Carthage, S00411).

+S̅C̅S̅CASSIANVS (*Cassianus, teacher and martyr of Imola, S00309).

+S̅C̅S̅IOHANNIS (*Iohannes, brother of Paulus, eunuch and martyr of Rome under Julian, S00384).

+S̅C̅S̅PAVLVS (*Paulus, brother of Iohannes, eunuch and martyr of Rome under Julian, S00384).

+S̅C̅S̅VITALIS (*Vitalis, martyr of Ravenna, S02826). [He was the husband of Valeria, S02238, who appears in the female procession, and father of Gervasius and Protasius, who follow him.]

+S̅C̅S̅GERVASIVS (*Gervasius, martyr of Milan and brother of Protasius, S00313).

+S̅C̅S̅PROTASIVS (*Protasius, martyr of Milan and brother of Gervasius, S00313).

+S̅C̅S̅VRSICINVS (*Ursicinus, martyr of Ravenna, S01408).

+S̅C̅S̅NAMOR (*Nabor, soldier and martyr, buried in Milan, companion of Felix, S00609).

+S̅C̅S̅FELIX (*Felix, soldier and martyr, buried in Milan, companion of Nabor, S00609).

+S̅C̅S̅APOLLENARIS (*Apollinaris, bishop and martyr of Ravenna, S00331).

+S̅C̅S̅SEBASTIANVS (*Sebastianus, martyr of Rome, S00400).

+S̅C̅S̅DEMITER (*Demitrios, martyr of Thessalonike, S00761).

+S̅C̅S̅POLICARPVS (*Policarp, bishop and martyr of Smyrna, S00004).

+S̅C̅S̅VINCENTIVS (*Vincentius, deacon and martyr of
Zaragoza and Valencia, S00290).

+S̅C̅S̅PANCRATIVS (*Pancratius, martyr of Rome, S00307).

+S̅C̅S̅CRISOGONVS (*Chrysogonus, martyr of Aquileia, S00911).

+S̅C̅S̅PROTVS (*Protus, eunuch and martyr of Rome, S00464, companion of Hyacinthus). [He and Hyacinthus were the slave companions of Eugenia, S00401, who appears at the end of the female procession.]

+S̅C̅S̅IAQVINIVS (*Hyacinthus, eunuch and martyr of Rome, S00464
, companion of Protus).

+S̅C̅S̅SABINVS (*Sabinus, bishop and martyr of Spoleto, S01878).


Description: Frances Trzeciak and Bryan Ward-Perkins

Cult Places

Cult building - independent (church)

Use of Images

Commissioning/producing an image
Public display of an image

Source

These mosaics are still present on the walls of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, largely in their original form, except for the figures of Martin and the two angels next to him, and the upper parts of the three Magi, which are due to restoration.




Discussion

Context:

The church now known as Sant'Apollinare Nuovo was built by the Ostrogothic King Theoderic for the Arian congregation of Ravenna and dedicated to Christ. After the fall of Ravenna to the Byzantines, the church was
reconciled to Orthodoxy by Bishop Agnellus (557-570) and dedicated to Martin of Tours. [See E05816 for the passages in the Liber Pontificalis Ecclesiae Ravennatis which record these events.]

The mosaics of the apse were lost in an earthquake in the eighth century and there is no record of what they depicted. However, the mosaics
on the walls of the nave survive to this day almost intact. In the upper registers they are original to Theodoric's church: above the windows there are scenes from the life of Christ, while between the windows there are unlabelled haloed figures holding scrolls or books (and therefore presumably prophets or evangelists). [See the image attached to E05816.]

Below the windows are the two processions of saints discussed in this record: on the left-hand wall, female saints proceeding from Classe towards the Virgin and Child, and, on the right, male saints processing from the palace of Ravenna towards the enthroned Christ. The siting of the female saints on the left and the male ones on the right reflects the practice of the early Church of separating men and women at worship, placing the women on the left. Stylistic analysis, careful examination of the technical details of the mosaic-work, and the presence of Martin at the head of the male procession, show that the processions date from the time of Bishop Agnellus' reconciliation of the church.

There is no way of knowing what the Ostrogothic mosaics were, which they replaced. It is, however, known that smaller figures (about half the size of the processing saints) originally stood between the colonnades of the palace and in front of the walls of Classe at the start of each procession (these architectural backdrops date from Theoderic's time and display unmistakable signs of figures having been removed from in front of them). It is generally supposed that the figures which were removed depicted members of the Ostrogothic court.

Subsequent restoration:

For the most part, the mosaics are well preserved and retain their original appearance. However, two portions are the results of restoration: on the women's side the upper bodies of the Magi (with their labels), and on the men's side everything from the very back of the figure of Martin to halfway across the enthroned Christ (this damage on the men's side was inflicted when an organ was installed in the eighteenth century).

It is likely that the restoration that followed in the nineteenth-century is inaccurate on the men's side, because a sixteenth-century source describes *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) leading the procession of male saints, and there is room for such a figure between Martin and the enthroned Christ (Baldini Lippolis 2012, pp. 386-387). Stephen, as the first martyr, would be an appropriate figure to lead a file of martyrs, and his presence would make an interesting point about Martin, the dedicatee of the church and the one non-martyr in the procession: with Martin immediately following Stephen, the programme would be emphasising that he, Martin, in the eyes of heaven stood as tall as any martyr.


The saints represented:

There has inevitably been much debate over why particular saints are represented. One possibility is that the individuals displayed were saints with relics, and therefore special veneration in the church (Deichmann,
Kommentar, vol.3, 183-188). However, we think this is unlikely, not so much because of the sheer number of saints represented - forty-eight or forty-nine with Stephen - though this a high number, but because it seems implausible that a collection of relics would contain almost equal numbers from male and female saints (female martyrs being rarer than male). We think the choice of who to represent was made simply on the basis of whether they were thought to be suitable examples of sainthood by the church of Ravenna, or perhaps by Bishop Agnellus himself. If this is correct, the presence of a saint in one of the processions is not in itself evidence that he or she had active cult in Ravenna. But it does show that this saint were known in the city, and considered to be important enough to merit a full-sized mosaic portrait.

The probable presence of Stephen at the head of the male procession is discussed above. On the female side, his place is taken by the three Magi: their presence, of course, emphasises the status of the Christ Child; but they may well also have been included because it was felt inappropriate for saints (and perhaps particularly female saints) to stand in immediate proximity to the godhead.

The presence and position of the two figures who lead the processions of saints, Martin (if we except the special case of Stephen) and Euphemia, are easily explained. Both Martin (the dedicatee of the church) and Euphemia had powerful reputations as defenders of Orthodoxy, and were therefore ideal choices for a church being purged of its heretical origins: Martin in chapter 6 of his
Life (E00692) had engaged in struggles with Arians in Milan, while Euphemia had been designated the defender of the Orthodoxy proclaimed in her church at the 451 Council of Chalcedon (see E05462).

The twenty-six male saints are, with one exception, well-known figures, easily identified. The great majority are from Italy, northwards from Rome. Of these, three are martyrs of Ravenna itself - Vitalis, Ursicinus and Apollinaris - and two more are of neighbouring cities - Cassianus of Imola and Chrysogonus, a martyr of Aquileia (though also with considerable veneration in Rome). Four are from Milan - the two pairs, Gervasius and Protasius, and Nabor and Felix. A full eleven saints, nearly half the total number, are martyrs of Rome: Clemens, Sixtus/Xystus, Laurentius, Hippolytus, Cornelius, the pair Iohannes and Paulus, Sebastianus, Pancratius, and a second pair Protus and Hyacinthus.
Finally, there is one saint of central Italy, Sabinus, bishop and martyr of Spoleto; he is the only male martyr present who is not from the first-division of sainthood.

The presence of so many Roman saints must reflect a period when relations between the church of Ravenna and that of Rome were good: it is indeed striking that the three portrayed bishops of Rome - Clemens, Xystus and Cornelius - are right near the head of the procession, well in front of any of Ravenna's saints (who include its founding bishop, Apollinaris). The ordering of the ravennate saints in relation to those of Milan (another potential rival see) is much more in favour of Ravenna; they are arranged in the following order: Vitalis (Ravenna), Gervasius and Protasius (both Milan), Ursicinus (Ravenna), Nabor and Felix (both Milan), and Apollinaris (Ravenna). This ordering is surely designed to stress the equal status of Ravenna's saints to that of the much more famous martyrs of Milan - indeed we should note that the representation of Vitalis, as an older man preceding a youthful Gervasius and Protasius, supported Ravenna's claim that he, Vitalis, was the father of these two famous saints, and so in a way their senior.

The five remaining male saints are from across Christian world: Martin of Tours, of course, from north-west Gaul, Vincentius from Spain, Cyprian of Carthage, Policarp of Smyrna, and Demetrius of Thessalonike. These are all very major figures, though it is somewhat surprising to find Demetrius amongst them, since there is very little evidence of him attracting attention in the Latin West in our period, and there were other saints who had considerable western cult and could easily have been selected in his place (such as Sergius, Theodore, George, or Cosmas and Damian) .

The twenty-two female saints are more scattered in their geographical origins, though there is amongst them another solid core of martyrs of Rome: Agnes, Caecilia, Daria, Emerentiana, Eugenia, and, probably, Paulina and Sabina. Seven more are also Italian: two local - Valeria (of Milan, but also of Ravenna through her marriage to Vitalis) and Iustina of Padova; three from central Italy - the pair Victoria and Anatolia of Picenum, and Cristina of Bolsena; and two from Sicily - Lucia of Syracuse and Agatha of Catania. The remaining readily identifiable female saints are from across the Christian world: Euphemia of Chalcedon (close to Constantinople), Pelagia of Syrian Antioch, Eulalia from Mérida in Spain, Crispina from Thagura and Theveste in central North Africa, the pair Perpetua and Felicitas from Carthage, and Anastasia of Sirmium in the north Balkans (who also had prominent cult in Rome).

Three of the female saints are of uncertain identity. For the tenth in line, Vincentia, there is no obvious identification. The name crops up in several places in the
Martyrologium Hieronymianum - in one instance with commemoration in Ravenna (E04621) - but always within a list of other lesser saints. Deichmann (Kommentar, vol.3, p. 185) lists her as a saint of Africa (without explanation), while Baldini Lippolis (2012, p. 392) suggests she is the wife of Bishop *Severus of Ravenna (S01884), which is very unlikely, since in Severus' hagiographical life (of uncertain date) his wife Vincentia does not play a particularly saintly role. Given her prominence in this procession, combined with her uncertain identity, we have been forced to identify her simply as 'Vincentia (of uncertain identity, portrayed in Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna, S02920)'. The seventeenth in line, Paulina, is also difficult to identify, though she is probably the Paulina, martyr of Rome, buried on the via Aurelia with her companion Arthemius (S00552). There are other possible martyrs of Rome with the same name, but Paulina of the via Aurelia seems to have attracted most interest and cult in our period. Finally, the identity of the twenty-first saint, Savina, is also somewhat problematic. A Savina is listed amongst the small number of female saints in the early canons of the mass of Milan (Lanzoni 1916, p. 97), but without any further indication of her identity. The most likely identification is, of course, with *Sabina (saint of Rome, S01546), well-known from her church on the Aventine hill - but we should note that the dedication of this church to Sabina is only reliably attested in the later sixth century, and Sabina, its dedicatee, is a shadowy figure.

The simplest explanation for the geographical spread of the female saints being wider than that of the men, and the presence amongst the women of more obscure figures, is the greater difficulty the commissioners of these mosaics had in identifying notable female martyrs: there were, for instance, none available from Ravenna and Milan.

The depiction of the saints:

The way the saints are depicted is interesting. Apart from Agnes being accompanied by a lamb, there is essentially no difference in the way the female saints are portrayed - all appear as young women magnificently dressed (as they might appear in heaven), even though at least one of them (Valeria, the mother of Saints Gervasius and Protasius) was not young when she died, and one of them, Felicitas, was in life a slave. By contrast, in the Cappella Arcivescovile a degree of difference is introduced in the depiction of two of the six female martyrs shown there, reflecting their earthly lives
(see E05950).

Amongst the men there is much more variation. Martin wears a cloak of purple - although almost the whole figure is restored, just enough of the original survives to confirm this. Purple is the colour Christ wears, both here and in the apses of San Vitale and San Michele in Africisco; it was presumably chosen to emphasise Martin's high status in heaven, even though he was 'only' a confessor who died peacefully in bed, and therefore might be viewed as inferior to the white-clad figures of martyrs that he leads.

Laurence wears a tunic of gold, reflecting a convention of dressing him in gold, which is also found elsewhere in the sixth century (on the triumphal arch of San Lorenzo fuori le mura at Rome, and in the apse at
Poreč in Croatia). No surviving text explains this convention, but it was presumably a favourable comment on the story of his Martyrdom (E02513), in which the deacon Laurence sold the wealth of the Church and gave it all to the poor, and then presented the poor to his persecutor as the Church's true wealth.

Two male saints gesture to the figures that follow them - Cornelius to Cyprian, and Iohannes to Paulus. In both cases the gesture emphasises a pairing in their stories: Cornelius (bishop of Rome) and Cyprian (bishop of Carthage) were close friends and allies and both suffered under the Decian persecution, while Iohannes and Paulus were brothers and companion martyrs. In the case of other pairs - Gervasius and Protasius, Nabor and Felix, and Protus and Hyacinthus - though the saints are placed together in the procession, no such gesture is included.

All the male saints wear the 'philosophers robes' thought appropriate for male saints in heaven (they are worn, for instance, by the Apostles in the Orthodox and the Arian baptisteries). However, in both the colour of their hair and in whether they wear beards, there are in many cases clear references to their lives on earth. Gervasius and Protasius, whom it was important to represent as young men (the sons of Vitalis), and the eunuchs Iohannes and Paulus and Protus and Hyacinthus, are all fresh-faced and clean shaven. By contrast, all the bishops - Clemens, Xystus/Sixtus and Cornelius of Rome, Cyprian of Carthage, Apollinaris of Ravenna, Polycarp of Smyrna and Sabinus of Spoleto - are all bearded, as befitted older men; indeed all except Cyprian have white beards, those of Apollinaris and Polycarp being long and pointed. Vitalis (as father of Gervasius and Protasius) and Cassianus (as a teacher) are both also appropriately bearded. (Martin too has a white beard, which would be appropriate but is the product of restoration - there is no record of how he originally appeared.)



Bibliography

Further Reading:
Deichmann, Friederich Wilhelm, Ravenna, Hauptstadt des spätantiken Abendlandes, vol. 1-3 (Wiesbaden, 1958-89).

Deliyannis, Deborah Mauskopf,
Ravenna in Late Antiquity (Cambridge, 2010).

J
äggi, Carola, Ravenna: Kunst und Kultur einer spätantiken Residenzstadt; die Bauten und Mosaiken des 5. und 6. Jahrhunderts (Regensburg, 2016).

Lanzoni, F., 'Studi storico-liturgici su S. Apollinare Nuovo',
Felix Ravenna, Supplemento 2 : Studi e ricerche su S. Apollinare Nuovo (Ravenna 1916), 83-98.

Urbano, Arthur, "Donation, Dedication and
Damnatio Memoriae : The Catholic Reconciliation of Ravenna and the Church of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo," Journal of Early Christian Studies 13:1 (2005), 71-110.

Verhoeven, Mariëtte,
The Early Christian Monuments of Ravenna: Transformations and Memory (Turnhout, 2011).

Images



The Magi, Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna. Photo credit: Nick Thompson, 22/04/2010. License: CC BY-SA 2.0.


Euphemia, Pelagia, Agatha, Agnes, Eulalaia, Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna. Photo credit: Nick Thompson, 22/04/2010. License: CC BY-SA 2.0.


Caecilia, Lucia, Crispina, Valeria, Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna. Photo credit: Nick Thompson, 22/04/2010. License: CC BY-SA 2.0.


Vincentia, Perpetua, Felicitas, Iustina, Anastasia, Daria, Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna. Photo credit: Nick Thompson, 22/04/2010. License: CC BY-SA 2.0.


Daria, Emerentiana, Paulina, Victoria, Anastasia, Cristina, Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna. Photo credit: Nick Thompson, 22/04/2010. License: CC BY-SA 2.0.


Victoria, Anastasia, Cristina, Savina, Eugenia, Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna. Photo credit: Nick Thompson, 22/04/2010. License: CC BY-SA 2.0.


Martin, Clemens, Sixtus, Laurence, Hippolytus, Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna. Photo credit: Nick Thompson, 22/04/2010. License: CC BY-SA 2.0.


Hippolytus, Cornelius, Cyprian, Cassianus, Johannes, Paulus, Vitalis, Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna. Photo credit: Nick Thompson, 22/04/2010. License: CC BY-SA 2.0.


Johannes, Paulus, Vitalis, Gervasius, Protasius, Ursicinus, Nabor, Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna. Photo credit: Nick Thompson, 22/04/2010. License: CC BY-SA 2.0.


Ursicinus, Nabor, Felix, Apollinaris, Sebastian, Demitrios, Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna. Photo credit: Nick Thompson, 22/04/2010. License: CC BY-SA 2.0.


Protus, Hyacinthus, Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna. Photo credit: Nick Thompson, 22/04/2010. License: CC BY-SA 2.0.


Polycarp, Vincentius, Pancratius, Crisogonus, Protus, Hyacinthus, Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna. Photo credit: Nick Thompson, 22/04/2010. License: CC BY-SA 2.0.


Record Created By

Bryan Ward-Perkins, Frances Trzeciak

Date of Entry

05/05/2021

Related Saint Records
IDNameName in SourceIdentity
S00004Polykarpos/Polycarp, bishop and martyr of Smyrna, and his companion martyrsPolicarpvsCertain
S00009Perpetua, Felicitas and their companions, martyrs of CarthagePerpetva, FelicitasCertain
S00017Euphemia, martyr of ChalcedonEvfimiaCertain
S00030Stephen, the First MartyrCertain
S00037Laurence/Laurentius, deacon and martyr of RomeLavrentivsCertain
S00050Martin, ascetic and bishop of Tours, ob. 397MartinvsCertain
S00097Agnes, virgin and martyr of RomeAgnesCertain
S00111Clemens/Clement, bishop of Rome, martyr of the CrimeaClemisCertain
S00146Caecilia, virgin and martyr of RomeCaeciliaCertain
S00172Cornelius, bishop and martyr of Rome, and companion martyrsCornelivsCertain
S00180Magi (of the Nativity story)Gaspar, Melchior, BalthassarCertain
S00201Xystus/Sixtus II, bishop and martyr of RomeSystvsCertain
S00290Vincentius/Vincent, deacon and martyr of Zaragoza and ValenciaVincentivsCertain
S00306Chrysanthus and Daria, chaste couple and martyrs of Rome, and companion martyrsDariaCertain
S00307Pancratius, martyr of RomePancrativsCertain
S00309Cassianus, teacher and martyr of ImolaCassianvsCertain
S00313Gervasius and Protasius, brothers and martyrs of MilanGervasivs, ProtasivsCertain
S00331Apollinaris, bishop and martyr of RavennaApollinarisCertain
S00384Iohannes and Paulus, brothers and eunuchs, martyrs of Rome under the emperor JulianIohannis, PavlvsCertain
S00400Sebastianus, martyr of RomeSebastianvsCertain
S00401Eugenia, virgin and martyr of Rome, buried on the via Latina, and companionsEugeniaCertain
S00407Eulalia, virgin and martyr of MéridaEulaliaCertain
S00411Cyprian, bishop and martyr of CarthageCyprianvsCertain
S00464Protus and Hyacinthus, eunuchs and martyrs of RomeProtvs, IaqviniusCertain
S00495Emerentiana, virgin and martyr of RomeEmerentianaCertain
S00509Hippolytus, martyr of RomeYppolitvsCertain
S00552Arthemius, Paulina and Candida, martyrs of Rome, buried on the via AureliaPaulinaUncertain
S00602Anastasia, martyr of Sirmium and RomeAnastasiaCertain
S00609Nabor and Felix, brothers, soldiers and martyrs, buried in MilanNamorCertain
S00761Demetrios, martyr of ThessalonikeDemiterCertain
S00794Agatha, virgin and martyr of CataniaAgathaCertain
S00846Lucia, virgin and martyr of SyracuseLvciaCertain
S00905Crispina, of Thagora, martyred at Theveste, with companionsCrispinaCertain
S00907Christina, martyr of TyreChristinaCertain
S00911Chrysogonus, martyr of Aquileia, venerated in RomeCrisogonvsCertain
S01093Pelagia, virgin and martyr of AntiochPelagiaCertain
S01406Victoria, Anatolia and Audax, martyrs of Picenum in central ItalyVictoriaCertain
S01408Ursicinus, martyr of RavennaVrsicinvsCertain
S01546Sabina, martyr of Rome, with church on the Aventine hillSabinaUncertain
S01878Sabinus, bishop, and companions, martyrs of Assisi and SpoletoSabinvsCertain
S02238Valeria, confessor/martyr of Milan, wife of Vitalis and mother of Gervasius and ProtasiusValeria Certain
S02321Iustina, virgin and martyr of PaduaIustinaCertain
S02826Vitalis, martyr of RavennaVitalisCertain
S02920Vincentia, of uncertain identity, portrayed in Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, RavennaVincentiaCertain


Please quote this record referring to its author, database name, number, and, if possible, stable URL:
Bryan Ward-Perkins, Frances Trzeciak, Cult of Saints, E06046 - http://csla.history.ox.ac.uk/record.php?recid=E06046