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The Cult of Saints in Late Antiquity


from its origins to circa AD 700, across the entire Christian world


Name

George, soldier and martyr, and Companions

Saint ID

S00259

Number in BH

BHG 669y-672b, 675, 678-679

Gender
Male
Female
Type of Saint
Soldiers, Martyrs, Converts, Merchants, artisans and other free people, Mothers and fathers
Related Evidence Records
IDTitle
E00367Gregory of Tours writes the Glory of the Martyrs (Liber in Gloria Martyrum), in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 580/594. Overview entry.
E00468The Piacenza Pilgrim records the basilica of *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030) outside Jerusalem, built by the empress Eudocia and containing the tomb of the martyr, and her tomb close to that of the saint; also the tomb of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259) at Diospolis, where miracles occur; all in Palestine. Account of an anonymous pilgrim, written in Latin, probably in Placentia (northern Italy), c. 570.
E00507The Piacenza Pilgrim records his visit to the hospice of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259) close to Elousa (Palestine). Account of an anonymous pilgrim, written in Latin, probably in Placentia (northern Italy), c. 570.
E00571The Piacenza Pilgrim records his visit, first to Barbalissos (on the Euphrates) with the tomb of *Bacchus/Bakchos (soldier and martyr of Barbalissos, S00079), and then to Suras, where Bacchus and his 'brother' *Sergius (soldier and martyr of Rusafa, S00023) suffered; the pilgrim states that Sergius rests 12 miles further on, at Tetrapyrgion. Account of an anonymous pilgrim, written in Latin, probably in Placentia (northern Italy), c. 570. In the second recension of the text, Sergius is replaced by *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), whose grave is said to be at Tyre (in Phoenicia, on the coast).
E00653Gregory of Tours, in his Glory of the Martyrs (100), tells of relics of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), and of other unnamed saints, being hosted at an oratory in the territory of Limoges (western Gaul), and refusing to move on until a part was left at the oratory; other relics of George effect many miracles in a village in the territory of Le Mans (north-west Gaul). Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 580/594.
E00663Coptic fragmentary parchment sheet of the 9th/10th c., of unknown provenance, preserving parts of the ninth and tenth miracles of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259) in the dialect of the Hermopolite nome (Middle Egypt); written most likely not before the 7th c.
E00690The Notitia ecclesiarum urbis Romae, a guide to saints' graves around Rome, closes with the church and grave of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036) on the 'via Vaticana', north-west of the city. Written in Latin in Rome, 625/649. A description of the basilica, added in the later 8th c., lists many of the altars of saints within the church.
E00720Inscription with prayer in Greek, from a church in Kasossos near Mylasa (Caria, western Asia Minor). Refers to saints and other holy figures: *Abraham (Old Testament patriarch, S00275), *Jacob (Old Testament patriarch, S00280), *Moses (Old Testament prophet and lawgiver, S00241), *Elijah (Old Testament prophet, S00217), *Elisha (Old Testament prophet, S00239), the Apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008), other unnamed Apostles (S00084), unnamed Confessors (S00184), *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), and a virgin *Eirene (possibly the martyr of Magedon, S02162). Probably late antique (6th/8th c.) or later.
E00790Greek graffito with an invocation of the God of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), asking Him to rouse the spirits of a (? circus) faction. Found in Ephesos (western Asia Minor). Probably late antique (5th-6th c.).
E00802Fragment of a Greek building inscription of a martyr shrine of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259) found near Kastollos (Lydia, western Asia Minor), probably late antique (4th-8th c.).
E00837Greek graffiti on a marble balustrade, with invocations of *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033) and probably *John (presumably either the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042), *Michael (the Archangel, S00181), and *George (soldier and martyr, S00259). Found in Aphrodisias (Caria, western Asia Minor), at the Temple/Church site. Probably 5th/6th c. or later.
E00839Greek building inscription of a sanctuary of *George (probably the soldier and martyr, S00259) and unnamed martyrs, his companions. Found in Sakkaia/Maximianopolis near Bostra (province of Arabia). Almost certainly 6th c. (549/567), though once dated to the 4th c.
E00908Fragmentary Greek building inscription for a church dedicated to a saint whose name is lost (possibly *George, soldier and martyr, S00259). Found near Akmonia (Phrygia, west central Asia Minor). Late antique.
E00923Two Greek inscriptions enumerating members of one or two bodies probably venerating *George (soldier and martyr, S00259). Both found at or near Seleukeia/Seleucia Sidera (Pisidia, west central Asia Minor). Probably the 4th or 5th c.
E01015Fragmentary Greek inscription with remnants of an otherwise unknown liturgical or hagiographical text referring to *George (soldier and martyr, S00259). Found at Topaklı near ancient Nysa (Cappadocia, central Asia Minor). Probably 5th-6th c.
E01076Greek inscription labelling a collective martyr shrine dedicated to *George (presumably the soldier and martyr, S00259), *Konon (one of the several homonymous martyrs of Anatolia, probably that of Isauria, S00430)), *Christophoros (presumably the martyr of Pamphylia, S00616), and, probably, *Kyrikos/Cyricus and Ioulitta/Julitta (child and mother, martyrs of Tarsus, S00007). Found at Yanıkhan near ancient Elaioussa-Sebaste (Cilicia, south-east Asia Minor). 5th-6th c., possibly 470-484.
E01214Greek inscription with an invocation of the God of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), asked to help 'those who remember the grace of George'. Found near Mytilene (Lesbos, the Aegean Islands). Probably 6th c. or later.
E01252Coptic funerary inscription, probably from Bawit, with a long invocation to a large number of saints including the Archangels *Michael (S00181) and *Gabriel (S00192),*Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), the Apostles (S00084), the martyrs *Viktor (son of Romanos, S00749), *Phoibammon (soldier and martyr of Assiut, S00080), *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), and *Menas (soldier and martyr of Abu Mena, S00073), and *Pamoun (S00775), as well as a long list of monastic figures that includes Apa *Apollo (founder of the monastery at Bawit, 4th century, S00160), Apa *Anoup, and Apa *Phib (S00774), of unknown date, presumably 6th/9th century and most likely from Bawit (Middle Egypt).
E01271The church of Panagia Drosiani on the island of Naxos (Aegean Islands) houses labelled pre-iconoclastic paintings of saints, datable to the 7th/8th c.: *Kosmas and Damianos (brothers, physician martyrs of Syria, S00385) *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033); possibly *Solomon (Old Testament king of Israel, S00270); *John the Baptist (S00020); just possibly *Catherine (martyr of Alexandria, S00765); possibly *George (soldier and martyr, S00259); and *Ioulianos/Julianus (possibly the martyr of Cilicia, S00305).
E01291Greek inscription on a boundary stone of a church dedicated to *Christophoros (probably the martyr of Pamphylia, S00616), and *George (soldier and martyr, S00259). Found in the city of Rhodes (island of Rhodes; Aegean Islands). Probably 7th-8th c.
E01302Coptic funerary inscription from Bawit (Middle Egypt) with a long invocation to a large number of saints including the Archangels *Michael (S00181) and *Gabriel (S00192), *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), *Adam and Zoe/Eve (S00772), the *Apostles (S00084), the martyrs *Viktor (son of Romanos, Egyptian martyr, S00749), *Phoibamon (soldier and martyr of Assiut, S00080), *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), *Menas (soldier and martyr of Abu Mena, S00073), the *Martyrs of Thone (S00771), and a long list of monastic figures including *Apollo (founder of the monastery at Bawit, 4th century, S00160), Anoup, and Phib (S00774), presumably 6th/8th century.
E01326Amulets with depictions of holy riders. Probably Christian. Found at Amathous and Salamis/Constantia (Cyprus). Probably prior to the 7th c.
E01678The short Life of *Leo II (bishop of Rome, ob. 683, S00875) in the Liber Pontificalis, written in Latin in Rome soon after his death, records his building of a church of *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), close to the church of *Bibiana (martyr of Rome under the emperor Julian, S00728); his translation there of the bodies of the martyrs *Simplicius, Faustinus, and Beatrix (martyrs of Rome, S00886); and his burial at the church of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036) on 3 July. Some manuscripts also attribute to Leo II the building of the church of *Sebastianus (martyr of Rome, S00400) and *George (soldier and martyr, S00259) at the Velabro.
E01689Greek inscription on a house at Barad/Brad in the Limestone Massif (north Syria), with a list of six or more saints: a saint *John (presumably either the Baptist, S00020, or the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042), *Dometios (monk of Syria, later 4th c., S00414), *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), *Christophoros (martyr of Pamphylia, S00616), *Euphemia (probably the martyr of Chalcedon, S00017), *Philotheos (possibly the martyr of Antioch, S00878), possibly *Kyros and Ioannes/Cyrus and John (physician and soldier, martyrs of Egypt, S00406), a certain *Eusebios, possibly *Thomas the Apostle (S00199), and other unnamed martyrs. Probably 5th/6th c.
E01694Fragmentary Greek inscription on a lintel with an invocation of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), probably the building inscription for a sanctuary. Found at Mu'Allaḳ, near Beroia/Aleppo and Chalkis (north Syria). Dated 553/554.
E01754Greek inscription commemorating the construction of a church dedicated to *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), on the site of a former pagan temple, and the deposition of relics of this saint. Found at Izra/Zorava to the northwest of Bostra (province of Arabia). Dated 515.
E01758Amulets from the collection of S. Ayvaz with Greek inscriptions invoking the Archangels: *Michael (S00181), *Gabriel (S00192), *Ouriel (S00770), and depictions showing *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), and a holy rider. Found in Syria, various locations. Probably Roman impeiral, late antique, and/or middle Byzantine. Pagan and/or Christian.
E01770Bronze medallion with a depiction of an unspecified holy rider and inscription with Psalm 90/91. Reportedly found near Tyre (west Phoenicia). Probably late antique.
E01834Greek building inscriptions for metata (transit camps) named after military saints: *Sergios (soldier and martyr of Rusafa, S00023), *Theodore (soldier and martyr of Amaseia and Euchaita, 00480), *Longinos (centurion at the Crucifixion, S00926), *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), and *Michael (the Archangel, S00181). Found in various locations in north and central Syria. Dated: 468-477, 524/525, and 526.
E01928Greek building inscription for a hostel (xention?) of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259). Found at Bsērīn, to the south of Ḥamāh/Amathe (central Syria). Dated 616.
E01931Fragmentary Greek building inscription possibly for a church, perhaps dedicated to *George (soldier and martyr, S00259) or *Sergios (soldier and martyr of Rusafa, S00023). Found at Garion/Ghoūr to the west of Ḥimṣ/Emesa (northwest Phoenicia). Dated 497.
E01934Greek inscription invoking the help of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259). Found at Tlīl near Garion/Ghoūr and Ḥimṣ/Emesa (northwest Phoenicia). Probably the 6th/7th c.
E01936Fragmentary Greek inscription referring to *George (soldier and martyr, S00259). Found in Ḥimṣ/Emesa (northwest Phoenicia). Probably 6th-7th c.
E01940Inscribed reliquary cross with an invocation of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259). Seen in Ḥimṣ/Emesa (northwest Phoenicia). Probably the 6th-7th c.
E01977Floor-mosaics with two Greek inscriptions: an invocation of the God of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259); and the record of the paving of a shrine (hierateion?) dedicated to the saint. Found in a church at Deir al-'Adas to the southwest of Damascus (south Phoenicia/north Arabia). One of them is dated 722.
E01979Floor-mosaics with Greek inscriptions with invocations of *George, (soldier and martyr, S00259), and the God of George, on behalf of families of numerous donors. Found at Houad/Tall Huwayd/Larissa, to the southeast of Apamea on the Orontes (central Syria). One of them is dated 568.
E01991Greek inscription commemorating the construction of a church (naos) dedicated to *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), and the later building of an aule. Found at Salkhad in Jabal Druze, to the east of Bostra (Hauran, south Syria/northeast Roman province of Arabia). Dated 633/634 and 665/666.
E02006Greek graffiti invoking the mercy of the God of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259) for at least two families. Found in the ruins of a fortified monastery/guest-house for pilgrims in Mizpe Shivta (near Shivta/ancient Sobata, and Elousa) in the Negev desert (Roman province of Palaestina III). Probably later 6th c.
E02009Greek building inscription for a church dedicated to *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), and recording the intercession of the saint for the village of Am[.]a (modern Jizeh). Found at Jizeh, midway between Bostra and Adraha (north Roman province of Arabia). Dated 538/539.
E02037Floor-mosaic with a Greek inscription commemorating the laying of the mosaic in 'Church 79' in Khirbet es-Samra to the southeast of Gerasa/Jerash (Jordan/the Roman province of Arabia), dedicated to *George (soldier and martyr, S00259). Probably earlier 7th c.
E02059Floor-mosaic with a Greek inscription commemorating the completion of an oratory (eukterion) dedicated to *George (soldier and martyr, S00259). Found at Riḥāb, between Bostra and Gerasa/Jerash (Jordan/the Roman province of Arabia). Dated 529. Once wrongly dated to AD 230.
E02118Fragmentary Greek inscription possibly invoking *George (soldier and martyr, S00259). Found at Izra/Zorava to the northwest of Bostra (Roman province of Arabia). Probably 6th c.
E02242Greek building inscription for a church of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259). Found at al-Ghāriyyeh al-Gharbiyyeh, to the northwest of Bostra (Roman province of Arabia). Dated 558.
E02246Greek inscription invoking the help of the God of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259) for an Arab (Ghassanid/Jafnid) phylarch. Found at Sammā', to the north of Bostra (Roman province of Arabia). Probably 6th c.
E02258Greek building inscription for a church (naos) dedicated to *George (soldier and martyr, S00259) and probably to *Elisha (Old Testament prophet, S00239). Found at Naḥīṭah, to the north of Bostra (Roman province of Arabia). Dated 623.
E02272Greek inscription invoking the help of the God of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259). Found at the 'monastic church' at Sammā' (to the southeast of Bostra, Roman province of Arabia). Probably c. 620s.
E02302Greek will from Oxyrhynchos (Middle Egypt), leaving a half-share of a house to an institution dedicated to *George (presumably the soldier and martyr, S00259); datable to the 6th century.
E02367The so-called 'complex of *John the Baptist (S00020)' in Gerasa/Jerash (Roman province of Arabia) comprises three churches (two oratories/eukteria and one naos), dedicated respectively to John the Baptist, *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), and *Kosmas and Damianos (brothers, physicians martyrs of Syria, S00385). Floor-mosaic inscriptions with dedicatory poems date the completion and paving of the church of George to 529/530, of John to 531, and of Kosmas and Damianos to 533. Two reliquaries were found in the church of George.
E02376Painted inscription (dipinto) from the church of *John the Baptist (S00020) in the 'complex of John the Baptist' in Gerasa/Jerash (Roman province of Arabia), mentioning the saints venerated there: John, *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), and *Kosmas and Damianos (brothers, physicians martyrs of Syria, S00385). After 531.
E02377Greek painted inscriptions (dipinti) from the northeast chamber of the church of *Kosmas and Damianos (brothers, physicians martyrs of Syria, S00385) of the 'complex of *John the Baptist' in Gerasa/Jerash (Roman province of Arabia), invoking the help of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), probably of Kosmas and Damianos, and an unspecified *Zechariah (probably the father of John the Baptist, S00597, or the Old Testament prophet, S00283). After 533.
E02381Greek inscription commemorating the construction of a church (naos), probably dedicated to *George (soldier and martyr, S00259). Found at Philadelphia/modern Amman (Roman province of Arabia/north Jordan). Probably 6th c.
E02436Beginning of a Coptic will, from the monastery of Epiphanios at Thebes (Upper Egypt), mentioning an institution dedicated to Apa *George (presumably the soldier and martyr, S00259) on the mountain of Jeme; datable to the first half of the 7th century.
E02552Floor-mosaic with a Greek dedicatory inscription commemorating the construction of a church to *George (soldier and martyr, S00259) from the contributions of villagers and local aristocrats. Also a reliquary socket in the shape of a cross. Found at Khirbat al-Mukhayyat near Mount Nebo (Roman province of Arabia/Jordan). Dated 535/536.
E02618Capital with labelled images of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), and *Isidoros (probably the soldier and martyr of Chios, S00425). Found at 'Aqaba, probably originally displayed in an ancient church in 'Aila at the north end of the Gulf of 'Aqaba (Jordan/Roman province of Palaestina III). Probably 6th-8th c. or later.
E02658Greek inscription commemorating the construction of a shrine (termed magaron) of *Sergios (soldier and martyr of Rusafa, S00023) or *George (soldier and martyr, S00259). Found at Kafr/Kapra between Bostra and Mushannaf (Jordan/Roman province of Arabia). Probably mid-7th c.
E02659Greek inscription commemorating the laying of the foundations of a church (naos) of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259). Found at Kafr/Kapra between Bostra and Mushannaf (Jordan/Roman province of Arabia). Dated 652.
E02667Greek inscription with the name of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259). Found at Eitha Caesarea/El-Hît, to the northwest of Maximianopolis/Sakkaia in the Hawran plain (the Roman province of Arabia). Probably 6th c.
E02668Greek building inscription for a church dedicated to *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), asking the saint to accept it as an offering and to intercede for the donors. Found at Sahwet el-Khodr near Bostra (Roman province of Arabia). Probably 6th-7th c.
E02669Greek inscription commemorating the construction of a church (oikos) of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259). Found at 'Amra, near Bostra (Roman province of Arabia). Probably 6th-7th c.
E02710Floor-mosaic with a Greek inscription invoking the God of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), from a chapel probably dedicated to George, perhaps by the empress Eudocia. Found at Sheikh Bader (modern Giv'at Ram, Binyanei Ha-'Uma) in Jerusalem (Roman province of Palaestina I). Probably 5th-6th c.
E02770Gregory the Great in a papal letter (Register 1.12) of 590, to bishop Iohannes of Orvieto, asks him to stop ill-treating a monastery of saint *George (soldier and martyr, S00259) within the diocese of Orvieto (central Italy). Written in Latin in Rome.
E02821Floor-mosaic with a fragmentary Greek building inscription probably for a church (oikos) dedicated to *George (soldier and martyr, S00259). Found at Ramot near the road from Jerusalem to Emmaus (Roman province of Palaestina I). Dated 762.
E02899Lead seals of officials and ecclesiastics, decorated with images of saints, mainly *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), including a seal of the Nea Church in Jerusalem, dedicated to Mary. All found at Caesarea Maritima (Roman province of Palaestina I). Probably 6th-7th c.
E03119The early seventh-century Georgian version of the Lectionary of Jerusalem commemorates on 23 April *George (soldier and martyr, S00259).
E03169Fragmentary (?) lintel with a Greek inscription mentioning thanksgiving to *George (soldier and martyr, S00259) and just possibly an invocation of *Hilarion (anchorite in Palestine and Cyprus, ob. 371, S00099). When recorded, it was reused at Khan Yunis in the northwest Negev desert, midway between Gaza and Rafah (Roman province of Palaestina I). Probably 5th-7th c.
E03386The early seventh-century Georgian version of the Lectionary of Jerusalem commemorates on 28 September the deposition of the relics of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), *Pamphilos (martyr of Caesarea, 00140), *Alexandrus (probably martyr of Pisidia under Diocletian, S01687), *Tarachos, Probos and Andronikos (martyrs of Anazarbos, Cilicia, S00710).
E03425The Georgian version of the Lectionary of Jerusalem, composed in Greek in the seventh century and translated in the eighth, commemorates on 10 November *George (solider and martyr, S00259).
E03438The early seventh-century Georgian version of the Lectionary of Jerusalem commemorates on 23 November the dedication of the church of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259).
E03496Greek inscription on a balance scale, possibly invoking the God of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259). Found at Dor (Tanturah) bay, to the north of Caesarea Maritima (Roman province of Palaestina I). Probably late antique.
E03513The will of the deacon Adalgyselus-Grimo of Verdun, of 634, leaves property to several churches and monasteries in the area around Verdun and Trier (both eastern Gaul). Includes references to churches or monasteries dedicated to *Agatha (virgin and martyr of Catania, S00794), *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), *Vitonus (bishop of Verdun, ob. c. 529, S01458), *Martin (ascetic and bishop of Tours, ob. 397, 00050), *Maximinus (bishop of Trier, ob. c. 347, S00465), and *George (soldier and martyr, S00259). Written in Latin in Verdun.
E03557Floor mosaic with a Greek inscription just possibly mentioning *George (soldier and martyr, S00259). Reportedly found at Baḥan, c. 5 km to the north of modern Tulkarm (Samaria, Roman province of Palestina I). Probably late antique.
E03581Floor mosaics with Greek inscriptions invoking the help of the God of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), and of the God of *Sergios (soldier and martyr of Rusafa, S00023). Found at Ḥorvat Ḥesheq near Diokaisareia/Sepphoris (Galilee, Roman province of Palaestina II). Dated 519.
E03585Coptic fragments of the Martyrdom of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), relating various miracles taking place during his trial under Tatianos, including a victorious contest against a magician, as well as miracle healings, resurrections, and the conversion of companion martyrs; written most likely not before the 7th century.
E03586Coptic Miracles of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), relating the building of his martyr shrine, the city of numerous healing and punishing miracles taking place, including the punishment for a promised, but undelivered donation to his shrine; written most likely not before the 7th century. Skeleton entry
E03718The Church Calendar of Ioane Zosime, compiled in Georgian in the 10th c., based however on 5th-7th c. prototypes from Palestine, commemorates on 23 April the dedication of the church of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259).
E03719The Church Calendar of Ioane Zosime, compiled in Georgian in the 10th c., based however on 5th-7th c. prototypes from Palestine, commemorates on 24 April *Leontios and Longinos (military companions of George of Lydda and martyrs, S01692) and *George (soldier and martyr, S00259).
E03721The Church Calendar of Ioane Zosime, compiled in Georgian in the 10th c., based however on 5th-7th c. prototypes from Palestine, commemorates on 26 April *Hesychios (martyr in Antioch, S01034), *Adrianos and Natalia (martyr of Nicomedia and his pious wife, S01342), *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), *Agapios from Gaza (martyr in Palestine, S01804), *Thyrsos (martyr of Bithynia, S00612) and *Alexandros and his companions (possibly martyrs in Egypt under Julian, S01190), *Mark (the Evangelist, S00293), and *Basileus (bishop and martyr of Amasea S01634).
E03750The Church Calendar of Ioane Zosime, compiled in Georgian in the 10th c., based however on 5th-7th c. prototypes from Palestine, commemorates on 25 May *James ('brother of the Lord', S00058), *Symeon (the God-receiver, elder of the temple of Jerusalem, S00285), *Zechariah (father of John the Baptist, S00597), martyrdom of *Therapon (bishop and martyr of Cyprus under Diocletian, S01751), *Meletios (bishops of Cyprus, S01635) and, as a marginal addition, *George (probably the soldier and martyr, S00259).
E03798The Church Calendar of Ioane Zosime, compiled in Georgian in the 10th c., based however on 5th-7th c. prototypes from Palestine, commemorates on 12 July *Thyrsos (martyr of Bithynia, S00612), *Proklos and Hilarion (martyrs of Ancyra under Trajan, S00179), and *George (soldier and martyr, S00259).
E03811The Church Calendar of Ioane Zosime, compiled in Georgian in the 10th c., based however on 5th-7th c. prototypes from Palestine, commemorates on 25 July *Anna (mother of Mary, S01614), *Olympias (deaconess of Constantinople, ob. 408, S01414), *Eupraxia (virgin and ascetic at Tabenna, S01637), *Kyprianos and Ioustina (martyrs of Antioch, S01704), *George (probably the soldier and martyr, S00259).
E03873The Church Calendar of Ioane Zosime, compiled in Georgian in the 10th c., based however on 5th-7th c. prototypes from Palestine, commemorates on 22 September *Hesychios (saint with church in Jerusalem mentioned c. 570, priest in 5th c Jerusalem?, S00261), the deposition of the relics of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), *Isaiah (Old Testament prophet, S00282), *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), *Thyrsos (martyr of Bithynia, S00612), and *Phokas (martyr of Antioch, S00413).
E03916The Church Calendar of Ioane Zosime, compiled in Georgian in the 10th c., based however on 5th-7th c. prototypes from Palestine, commemorates on 4 November *Isidoros (probably the martyr of Chios, S00425), George (soldier and martyr, S00259), and Ioannike, a 9th c. monk.
E03922The Church Calendar of Ioane Zosime, compiled in Georgian in the 10th c., based however on 5th-7th c. prototypes from Palestine, commemorates on 10 November *George (soldier and martyr, S00259) and the dedication of his church, and *Konon (probably gardener and martyr of Magydos, S00117) and Daniel (an unidentified figure).
E03946Three fragmentary Greek inscriptions (two carved, and one painted), mentioning *John the Baptist (S00020), and possibly *Aaron (the first High Priest, and brother of Moses, S01427), and *George (soldier and martyr, S00259). Found in the church and chapel in the monastic complex of Aaron on Jabal Hārūn near Petra (Roman province of Palaestina III). Probably late antique.
E04026Coptic settlement of a dispute over joint inheritance, from Jeme (Upper Egypt), mentioning the neighbouring properties of houses inherited, among the bordering properties is one dedicated to *George (soldier and martyr, S00259); dated to the year 748/9.
E04262Coptic receipt from unknown Egyptian provenance, issued by the dikaion of the altar of *George (presumably the soldier and martyr, S00259) for rent payment made on its fields; datable to the 8th century.
E04280Greek epitaph for two men, father and son, described as life-long devoted servants of an unnamed martyr. Found at Elousa in the Negev desert (Roman province of Palaestina III). Dated 544/545.
E04321Greek list of payments from Aphrodito (Upper Egypt), mentioning an institution dedicated to *George (presumably the soldier and martyr, S00259), people associated with *Mary (presumably Mother of Christ, S00033), and a district of *Philotheos (possibly the young boy of Antioch, S00878); datable to the 8th century.
E04331Greek inscriptions/graffiti found in the south court of the North Church at Nessana/Auja Hafir in the Negev desert (Roman province of Palaestina III), invoking *Sergios (soldier and martyr of Rusafa, S00023), and *George (soldier and martyr, S00259). Probably 6th-7th c.
E04356Levy of camels and camel riders assigning two camel riders to one or two institutions in the village of Charachmouba/El-Kerak, named after *George (soldier and martyr, S00259) and a saint whose name is lost. Written in Greek on papyrus. Probably issued at Elousa, found at Nessana/Auja Hafir in the Negev desert (Roman province of Palaestina III). Probably 6th c.
E04375Daily record of sales of dates, including an entry on a purchase by a person affiliated to an institution named after *George (soldier and martyr, S00259). Written in Greek on papyrus. Found at Nessana/Auja Hafir in the Negev desert (Roman province of Palaestina III). Probably 6th-7th c.
E04385Fragmentary papyrus sheets from a codex with an account in Greek of the miracles and martyrdom of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), one of the earliest extant Greek manuscript of the so-called 'legend of Saint George'. The preserved fragments describe his resurrection of the dead, his healing of a widow's son, the third resurrection of George by Christ, and the tempting of George by king Dadianos (= the initial passages of the conversion of Queen Alexandra). A miracle by *Michael (the Archangel, S00181) is also mentioned. Found at Nessana/Auja Hafir in the Negev desert (Roman province of Palaestina III). Probably 7th c.
E04390Syriac graffito possibly invoking *George (soldier and martyr, S00259). Found at Katura in north Syria, near Qalat Semaan, to the northwest of Beroia/Aleppo. Probably late antique.
E04404Floor-mosaic with a Greek funerary inscription for the presbyter and abbot Kyriakos, describing him as the founder of an oratory (eukterion) of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), and mentioning a donation to the Justinianic 'Nea' Church in Jerusalem, dedicated to *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033). Found at Jericho (Roman province of Palaestina I). Dated 566.
E04416Greek inscription commemorating the construction of a martyr shrine (martyrion) dedicated to *George (soldier and martyr, S00259). Found at Mûmsiyye/el-Ghassâniyye near Quneitra and Paneas/Caesarea Philippi, in the Golan Heights, to the northeast of the Sea of Galilee (Roman province of Phoenicia Paralias). Dated: 472, 486/487, or 532.
E04515Greek document from the Arsinoites (Fayum) mentioning an institution dedicated to *George (probably the soldier and martyr, S00259); datable to the 6th/7th century.
E04528Floor-mosaic with a Greek inscription invoking *George (soldier and martyr, S00259). Found at ‘Ein Dab, near Eleutheropolis, in the Judean Hills (Roman province of Palaestina I). Probably second half of the 6th c.
E04535Long and complex, but poorly spelt, Greek text roughly inscribed on all the faces of a limestone slate, invoking the help of a number of saints: a saint *Klemens (probably *Clement of Alexandria, S02839), *Polykarpos (bishop and martyr of Smyrna, S00004), *Tryphon (martyr of Nikaia/Nicaea, S00439), *Kyprianos (probably the magician and martyr of Antioch, S01704), *Athanasios (probably the bishop of Alexandria, S00294), *Epiphanios (probably the bishop of Salamis, S00215), *Theodore (soldier and martyr of Amaseia and Euchaita, S00480), and *George (soldier and martyr, S00259). Found at Lythrodontas near ancient Tamassos, Cyprus. Probably 5th or 6th c.
E04957The Greek Life of *Nikolaos of Sion (abbot and bishop in Lycia, ob. 564, S00559) mentions fifteen shrines of various saints at villages in the territory of Myra in Lycia (south-west Asia Minor), and the celebration of public feasts with sacrifices of oxen at them, organised by Nikolaos, abbot of the monastery of Holy Sion. Written in the late 6th c., probably at the monastery of Holy Sion in Lycia.
E05283The Greek Life of *Theodoros (abbot of Sykeon, ob. 613, S01619), by Eleusios-Georgios of Sykeon, mentions several shrines and festivals of saints at Sykeon and other places in Anatolia, the Holy Land, and Constantinople. Written at Sykeon (central Asia Minor), in the 640s.
E05291Eleusios-Georgios of Sykeon composes the Life of *Theodoros (ascetic and abbot of Sykeon, ob. 613, S01619), recounting the life, ascetic feats, and miracles of its hero, and the foundation of the monastic centre of Sykeon in Galatia (central Asia Minor). The text mentions several shrines and festivals of saints in cities and villages of Asia Minor, and also in Constantinople and the Holy Land. Written in Greek at Sykeon, in the 640s. Overview entry
E05349The Greek Life of *Theodoros (ascetic and abbot of Sykeon, ob. 613, S01619), by Eleusios-Georgios of Sykeon, mentions several festivals of saints, including processions, night vigils and the celebration of the Eucharist, celebrated in the 6th and 7th centuries at Iouliopolis, Germia and Sykeon (all in central Asia Minor), and in Constantinople. Written at Sykeon, in the 640s.
E05361The Greek Life of *Theodoros (abbot of Sykeon, ob. 613, S01619), by Eleusios-Georgios of Sykeon, mentions the acquisition of relics of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), and of the cloak of *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), by the monastery of Theodoros at Sykeon. Written at Sykeon (central Asia Minor), in the 640s.
E05555Venantius Fortunatus writes eleven books of Poems in Latin, mainly in western and north-western Gaul, 565/600; many of them with reference to saints. Overview entry.
E05638Venantius Fortunatus, in a poem (2.12) On the basilica of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259) in Mainz (north-east Gaul), praises Sidonius, bishop of Mainz, as its founder in 530/550. Written in Latin in Gaul, 565/576.
E05670John Malalas in his Chronographia mentions the martyrdom of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259) and *Babylas (bishop and martyr of Antioch, S00061) under Numerian (r. 283-284). Written in Greek at Antioch (Syria) or Constantinople, in the mid-6th c.
E05697Coptic ostracon from the area of Hermonthis (Upper Egypt) with a letter mentioning that some people entered the church of *George (presumably the soldier and martyr, S00259) causing damage, for which they will be banned from the celebration of the saint’s feast day; datable to the end of the 6th century.
E05700Coptic Ostracon from the area of Hermonthis (Upper Egypt) offering a list of various metal objects signed by the deacon of a church dedicated to *George (presumably the soldier and martyr, S00259); datable to the 7th century.
E05759Venantius Fortunatus writes a poem (10.10) on the oratory dedicated to *Gabriel (the Archangel, S00192), built by Gregory (bishop of Tours, 573-594) in Artannes (north-west Gaul), and lists the relics housed there. Written in Latin in Gaul, 576/594.
E05788Agnellus of Ravenna, in his Liber Pontificalis Ecclesiae Ravennatis, written in Latin, refers to the foundation of a monasterium dedicated to *George (soldier and martyr, S00259) which he claims took place in 557/570; written in Ravenna in 830/846.
E05815Agnellus of Ravenna, in his Liber Pontificalis Ecclesiae Ravennatis, written in Latin, refers to the reconciliation to Orthodoxy by Bishop Agnellus (557-570) of several previously Arian churches, located in and around Ravenna (northern Italy). The new dedications are recorded as being to *Eusebius (bishop of Vercelli, ob. 371, S01219), *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), and *Theodore (soldier and martyr of Amaseia and Euchaita, S00480), all in Ravenna; to *Sergius (soldier and martyr of Rusafa, S00023) in Classe; and to *Zeno (bishop of Verona, ob. 371, S01558) in Caesarea. Account written in Ravenna in 830/846.
E05971Coptic ostracon from the area of Hermonthis (Upper Egypt) with an excerpt from a calendar of saints’ feast days, such as those of *Jakob (S00858), *Arsenios and Loukios (ascetics of Syrian origin, and martyrs near Panopolis, S02600), *Theognosta (perhaps the mother of George, S01537), *Athanasios (possibly the bishop of Alexandria, ob. 373, S00294), *David (Old Testament king of Israel and Psalmist, S00269), *Daniel (possibly the disciple and biographer of Arsenios, S02379) *Zoilos (possibly the disciple of Arsenios, S02378) and *Anna (possibly the mother of Mary, S01614), *Maria (possibly Mary, mother of Christ, S00033) and *Sophia (perhaps the head of a convent in Edessa, ob. 363, S02381); datable to the 7th century.
E05972Coptic ostracon from Deir el-Bahari (Upper Egypt) with the agreement of a newly ordained deacon to serve well at a shrine dedicated to *George (presumably the soldier and martyr, S00259); datable around the year 600.
E06094Adomnán, in his On the Holy Places, relates two stories the Franco-Gallic bishop Arculf heard, during his recent visit to Constantinople, about an image of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259) in Diospolis (Palestine), which Arculf had himself visited. Written in Latin at Iona (north-west Britain), possibly 683/689.
E06114Greek receipt from Arsinoiton Polis (Fayum) concerning a salary payment, involving a deacon of an institution dedicated to *George (presumably the soldier and martyr, S00259); datable to the 7th century.
E06119Greek document from Ibion (Arsinoites/Fayum) with an inventory of valuables and objects in the church of Apa Psaios, mentioning an archdeacon of an institution dedicated to Apa *George (presumably the soldier and martyr, S00259); datable to the 5th/6th century.
E06147The Greek Martyrdom of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), tells the story of a young soldier, and his companion martyrs, who defies the wicked pagan king Dadianos, is tortured and killed three times and thrice resurrected by Christ, and finally martyred after converting many followers and banishing the demon Apollon. Composed probably either in Diospolis/Lydda (Palestine) or in Alexandria or elsewhere in the East, probably originally in the 5th century, with at least two successive major revisions in the 5th-7th century.
E06333Gregory the Great in a papal letter (Register 2.26) of 592, to Stephanus, chartularius of Sicily, tells him to investigate problems in a monastery dedicated to *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), presumably in Sicily. Written in Latin in Rome.
E06385Gregory the Great in a papal letter (Register 9.7) of 598, to Marinianus, an abbot of Palermo (Sicily), instructs him to take charge of a neglected church, close to his monastery, dedicated to *George (soldier and martyr, S00259). Written in Latin in Rome.
E06395Gregory the Great in a papal letter (Register 9.90) of 599, to Sabinus, a subdeacon, mentions a bequest to a church in an unnamed location (but presumably near Rome or in southern Italy), dedicated to *George (soldier and martyr, S00259) by a man who wished to be buried in it. Written in Latin in Rome.
E06453Greek Amulet from unknown Egyptian provenance referring to the intercessions of *George (presumably the soldier and martyr, S00259); datable to the 7th century.
E06498Cyril of Scythopolis composes the Life of *Ioannes/John the Hesychast (ascetic in Palestine, S02544), recounting his life as a miracle working ascetic, while the hero is still alive. Written in Greek in Palestine, 555/557.
E06819Coptic funerary stela presumably from Sinnuris in the Fayum invoking a long list of saints, among them the martyrs *Viktor (son of Romanos, S00749), *Phoibammon (soldier and martyr of Assiut, S00080), *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), and *Menas (soldier and martyr of Abu Mena, S00073); datable to the 7th–9th century.
E07001The De Locis Sanctis, a guide to the martyrs' burials around Rome, is followed by an Appendix listing 21 churches dedicated to saints within the Aurelianic walls of Rome. Written in Latin in Rome, certainly after 625 and before 790, possibly in 642/683.
E07008Coptic Encomion on *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), attributed to Constantine of Siout (c. 550–640), written in the late 6th/early 7th century. Skeleton entry
E07066Clay stamp bearing an image of two male saints, and a Greek inscription mentioning a martyr whose name is lost. Found during archaeological excavations at Chersonesos/Cherson (north Black Sea); 6th century.
E07075In the Life of Lady *Balthild (queen of the Franks, ob. 680, S02359), the author recalls how Queen Clotild, the wife of Clovis, founded a church dedicated to *Peter (the Apostle, S00036) in Paris; a monastery dedicated to *George (soldier and martyr, S00259) at Chelles (near Paris); and other churches dedicated to saints (here unnamed). Written in Latin in Gaul, possibly at the monastery at Chelles, 680/90.
E07916Theodosius, in his On the Topography of the Holy Land, on a route from Jerusalem to Nazareth notes: Emmaus/Nicopolis, where Cleopas (pupil of Jesus, S00249), recognised the risen Jesus at supper, and later suffered martyrdom; the burial site of *George (soldier and martyr, S00259) at Diospolis, and the miracles that occur there; and the martyrdom of *Cornelius (the centurion baptised by Peter in Acts, S00301) at Caesarea of Palestine. Written in Latin, perhaps in Africa, 518/540.