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The Cult of Saints in Late Antiquity


from its origins to circa AD 700, across the entire Christian world


Name

Mark the Evangelist

Saint ID

S00293

Number in BH

BHG 1035-1036

Reported Death Not Before

50

Reported Death Not After

100

Gender
Male
Type of Saint
Evangelists, Martyrs
Related Evidence Records
IDTitle
E00513The Piacenza Pilgrim, in his account of Alexandria (Lower Egypt), lists the graves there of *Athanasios (bishop of Alexandria, ob. 373, S00294), *Phaustos/Faustus (martyr of Alexandria, S00299).*Epymachos (martyr of Egypt, S00222), 'Antoninus' (either *Antony 'the Great', monk of Egypt, ob. 356, S00098, or *Antoninus, martyr of Alexandria, S00327) and *Mark (the Evangelist, S00293). Account of an anonymous pilgrim, written in Latin, probably in Placentia (northern Italy), c. 570.
E01143Coptic donation document addressing the dikaion of the topos of *Markos (presumably Mark, the Evangelist,S00293) located in the south of Hermopolis (Middle Egypt), datable to the 7th-8th c.
E01338The church of Panagia Kanakaria at Lythrankomi (north-eastern Cyprus) houses a mosaic with depictions of Christ, *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), unnamed *Archangels (almost certainly *Michael, S00181, and *Gabriel, S00192), and with labelled depictions of *Apostles and *Evangelists. Probably 525-550.
E01614A tract on the Trinity, written in Latin, probably in 6th c. Gaul, claims that cities where the churches were founded by the Apostles have never fallen under the control of heretics. It lists Jerusalem; Ephesus, founded by *John (the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042); Alexandria, founded by *Mark (the Evangelist, S00293); and Smyrna, where the first bishop was Polycarp/Polykarpos (S00004). It then lists four founders of sees in Gaul: *Trophimus (bishop and confessor of Arles, S00617), *Paulus (bishop of Narbonne, S00503), *Saturninus (bishop and martyr of Toulouse, S00289), and *Daphnus (bishop of Vaison, S00851), and claims them as disciples of the Apostles. The tract has been attributed to Caesarius of Arles, but the attribution is questionable.
E02011Gregory of Tours, in his Histories (1.25), mentions several 1st, 2nd, and 3rd century martyrs, namely *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), *Paul (the Apostle, S00008), *James ('the brother of the Lord', S00058), *Mark (the Evangelist, S00293), *Stephen (the first martyr, S00030), *Clemens (bishop of Rome, martyr of the Crimea, S00111), *Symeon (bishop and martyr of Jerusalem, S01139), *Ignatios, (bishop of Antioch and martyr of Rome, S00649), *Iustinus (philosopher and martyr of Rome, S01140), *Polycarp (bishop and martyr of Smyrna, S00004), *Cornelius (bishop and martyr of Rome, S00172), and *Cyprian (bishop and martyr of Carthage, S00411). Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 575/594.
E02128Greek list of unknown Egyptian origin, presenting shrines dedicated to martyrs, including *Dorotheos (S01173), *Ioustos (S01172), and an *Evangelist, possibly Mark (S00293), datable to the 7th/8th century.
E02435Coptic contract, from the monastery of Epiphanios at Thebes (Upper Egypt), mentioning a topos of *Mark (the Evangelist, S00293) on the mountain of Jeme; datable to the first half of the 7th century.
E03120The early seventh-century Georgian version of the Lectionary of Jerusalem commemorates on 24 April Mark (the Evangelist, S00293).
E03193The early seventh-century Georgian version of the Lectionary of Jerusalem commemorates on 12 June the Evangelists *Matthew (S00791), *Mark (S00293), *Luke (S00442) and *John (S00042).
E03330Palladius of Helenopolis in his Lausiac History recounts the story of the strict ascetic Philorhomos of Galatia (central Asia Minor), who walked to Rome and Alexandria, on pilgrimage to the tombs of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036) and *Mark (the Evangelist, S00293). Written in Greek at Aspuna or Ankyra (both Galatia, central Asia Minor), 419/420.
E03404The early seventh-century Georgian version of the Lectionary of Jerusalem commemorates on 20 October *Thalelaios (monk of Syria, S00375) and the deposition of the relics of *John the Baptist (S00020) and *Mark (the Evangelist, S00293).
E03563Three fragmentary Greek homilies of the 5th or 6th centuries, attributed to Cyril of Alexandria, refer to the translation of the relics of *Kyros and Ioannes/Cyrus and John (physician and soldier, martyrs of Egypt, S00406) from the shrine of *Mark (the Evangelist, S00293) in Alexandria to the church of the Evangelists at the monastery of Metanoia, between Kanopos and Menuthis (Lower Egypt). The author refers to the story of the martyrs and the identification of their relics. The new shrine (martyrion) aims at preventing the locals from visiting pagan shrines for healing.
E03720The Church Calendar of Ioane Zosime, compiled in Georgian in the 10th c., based however on 5th-7th c. prototypes from Palestine, commemorates on 25 April *Mark (the Evangelist, S00293), *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), *Mary (mother of James, New Testament figure, S01818), *Salome (follower of Jesus, S01819), *Ioanna (the Myrrhbearer, New Testament figure, S01820), and *Mary and Martha of Bethany (followers of Jeus and sisters of Lazarus, S01326).
E03721The Church Calendar of Ioane Zosime, compiled in Georgian in the 10th c., based however on 5th-7th c. prototypes from Palestine, commemorates on 26 April *Hesychios (martyr in Antioch, S01034), *Adrianos and Natalia (martyr of Nicomedia and his pious wife, S01342), *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), *Agapios from Gaza (martyr in Palestine, S01804), *Thyrsos (martyr of Bithynia, S00612) and *Alexandros and his companions (possibly martyrs in Egypt under Julian, S01190), *Mark (the Evangelist, S00293), and *Basileus (bishop and martyr of Amasea S01634).
E04038Coptic document from the monastery of Apa Apollo at Bawit (Middle Egypt), concerning an agreement over responsibilities for monastic property, ensuring the validity of the agreement with an oath sworn by the throne of *Mark, the Evangelist (S00293), and mentioning a church/shrine (topos) dedicated to Apa *Apollo (founder of the monastery, S00160). An agreement reached in this document is confirmed by a oath; datable to the 8th century.
E04173Coptic ostracon from western Thebes (Upper Egypt) with a letter invoking *Sergios (perhaps the soldier and martyr of Rusafa, S00023) and *Mark (presumably the Evangelist, S00293), as well as all the saints (S00518) for protection; datable to the first half of the 8th century.
E04327Greek document from Antinoopolis (Middle Egypt) concerning the settlement of a family dispute, mentioning the church of Apa *Mark, the Evangelist (S00293), dated between 1 May 567 and 30 April 568.
E04337Two Greek graffiti in cursive script, found in the martyr shrine at the North Church at Nessana/Auja Hafir in the Negev desert (Roman province of Palaestina III) of uncertain purpose, listing saints and holy men and women, many undocumented elsewhere; one of the graffiti apparently making reference to dates. Probably 5th - mid-6th c.
E04421Greek inscription commemorating the consecration of a church dedicated to a certain *Markos (probably *Mark the Evangelist, S00293, or possibly *Markos, bishop and confessor of Arethousa in Syria, ob. 4th c., S01563). Found at Jueîzeh, near Quneitra and Paneas/Caesarea Philippi, in the Golan Heights, to the northeast of the Sea of Galilee (Roman province of Phoenicia Paralias). Probably 5th-6th c.
E04503Gregory the Great, in his Dialogues (3.33), describes miracles effected by *Eleutherius (6th c. abbot of Spoleto, S01770), abbot of the monastery of *Mark (the Evangelist, S00293) at Spoleto (central Italy). Written in Latin in Rome, c. 593.
E04639Encomion in Coptic on the *Apostles (S02422 and S00084) with an emphasis on *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008), and including an account of the life and martyrdom of *Mark (the Evangelist, S00293), from the monastery of the Archangel Michael near Hamouli in the Fayum (Lower Egypt), attributed to Severianos of Gabala and delivered on their feast day (29 June) at a sanctuary of the Apostles in a cemetery of an unnamed city; if by Severianos, originally delivered in Greek in the late 4th/early 5th century, probably in Constantinople.
E04767Paulinus of Nola, in many of his fourteen poems (the Natalicia) written in honour of *Felix (priest and confessor of Nola, S00000), identifies Felix as the special protector (patronus) of Nola (southern Italy); the similar role of other saints, in other regions, is detailed in Natalicium 11. Written in Latin, in Spain and later Nola, between 395 and 408.
E05482Leo the Great, in several letters written in Latin in Rome between 445 and 454, justifies Rome’s primacy over other episcopal and patriarchal sees (particularly Constantinople and Alexandria) with reference to the primacy over the other Apostles of *Peter (the Apostle, S00036), and to the status of *Mark (the Evangelist, S00293), as Peter's disciple.
E05544Bede, in his Martyrology, records the feast on 25 April in Alexandria of *Mark the Evangelist (S00293). Written in Latin at Wearmouth-Jarrow (north-east Britain), 725/731.
E05768Coptic letter from the Arsinoites (Fayum) wishing for the intercession of *Mark (the Evangelist, S00293) and of the full choir of *Saints (All Saints, S01151); datable to the 8th century.
E05854The Calendar of Willibrord, in its earliest version, records the feasts of various saints in April. Written in Latin at Echternach, Frisia (north-east Gaul), 703/710.
E06093Adomnán, in his On the Holy Places, reports the recent visit of the Franco-Gallic bishop Arculf to Alexandria, where *Mark (the Evangelist, S00293) lay buried in a great church. Written in Latin at Iona (north-west Britain), possibly 683/689.
E06116Greek receipt from Arsinoiton Polis (Fayum), concerning payment and mentioning a street dedicated to *Mark (presumably the Evangelist, S00293); dated 26 Juli 683.
E06234The Greek Martyrdom of *Petros (bishop and martyr of Alexandria, S00247) recounts the protagonist's last days, his martyrdom and the tumult surrounding his burial in a western suburb of Alexandria. The story also features his successor *Alexandros (bishop of Alexandria, ob. 326/328, S00733) and mentions the four martyred Egyptian bishops commemorated by Eusebius of Caesarea: *Phileas (bishop of Thmuis, martyr of Alexandria, S00125), *Hesychios (S00248), *Pachomios (Pachymios, S00156) and *Theodoros (S02704), as well as several of the preceding archbishops of Alexandria. It also provides details about the martyrium and tomb of *Mark the Evangelist (S00293) in the quarter of Alexandria called ta Boukolou. Written in Alexandria, probably in the 5th century, possibly with later additions by the early 7th century.
E06245Venantius Fortunatus, in a poem on virginity (8.3), when describing the court of heaven lists numerous saints with the cities of their resting-place. Written in Latin in Gaul, probably in the early 570s.
E06394Gregory the Great in a papal letter (Register 9.88) of 599, to Anthelmus, subdeacon of Naples, deals with a dispute over the property of a monastery dedicated to *Mark (the Evangelist, S00293) outside the walls of Spoleto (central Italy). Written in Latin in Rome.
E06436Gregory the Great with a papal letter (Register 13.43) of 603, to Eulogius, bishop of Alexandria (Lower Egypt), sends a small cross containing fragments of the chains of the apostles *Peter (S00036) and *Paul (S00008); he encourages Eulogius to place the cross over his eyes, since these relics often effect miracles. Gregory also thanks Eulogius for a gift of relics of *Mark (the Evangelist, S00293). Written in Latin in Rome.
E06893The Greek Martyrdom of *Mark the Evangelist (S00293) recounts his preaching in different cities of Libya and Egypt, his pursuit and capture by pagans in Alexandria, and his torture and death by dragging through the city. Written presumably in Alexandria, and possibly in the 5th century.
E07001The De Locis Sanctis, a guide to the martyrs' burials around Rome, is followed by an Appendix listing 21 churches dedicated to saints within the Aurelianic walls of Rome. Written in Latin in Rome, certainly after 625 and before 790, possibly in 642/683.
E07010Coptic Encomion on *Mark (the Evangelist, S00293), attributed to John of Shmun (c. 600), written in the late 6th/early 7th century. Skeleton entry
E07031The Greek Life of *Auxibios (bishop of Soli, S01377) recounts the life of one of the first bishops of Cyprus and a disciple of the apostle Mark. It provides a foundation narrative for the ecclesiastical community of Soli (Cyprus), and refers to the saint’s tomb which was never opened, and where miracles occur. Written at Soli in the early 7th century.
E07042Coptic Martyrdom of *Mark (the Evangelist, S00293). Skeleton entry
E08022The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor states that in 515/516 the Monophysite bishop of Alexandria, Dioskoros, was enthroned in the cathedral of *Mark (the Evangelist, S00293) and that the son of the augustalis (governor of Egypt) was killed during a disturbance in the church of *John the Baptist (S00020). Chronicle compiled in the Byzantine Empire in the early 9th c., using extracts from earlier Greek texts.