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The Cult of Saints in Late Antiquity


from its origins to circa AD 700, across the entire Christian world


Name

Viktor, son of Romanos, martyr of Egypt, and companion martyrs

Saint ID

S00749

Reported Death Not Before

303

Reported Death Not After

311

Gender
Male
Type of Saint
Soldiers, Officials and professionals, Martyrs
Related Evidence Records
IDTitle
E00164Greek Calendar of Church Services to be performed at different churches in Oxyrhynchus (Middle Egypt) from the end of October to the end of March of the years 535–536, providing information on the names of many churches, and on the saints’ days celebrated in the city.
E00741Greek list from the city of Oxyrhynchos (Middle Egypt), presenting festal payments expected from various churches and shrines, most of them dedicated to saints, including *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), *Ioustos/Justus (soldier and martyr of Antinoopolis, S01172), *John the Baptist (S00020), *Menas (soldier and martyr of Abu Mena, S00073), *Thekla (follower of Apostle Paul, S00092), *Euphemia (martyr of Chalcedon, S00017), *Neilos (ascetic of Sinai, S00405), *Viktor (son of Romanos, Egyptian martyr, S00749), possibly *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), *Gabriel (the Archangel, S00192), *Philoxenos (saint with cult at Oxyrhynchos, S00443), and *Ioulianos/Julianus (probably the martyr of Cilicia, S00305), datable to the 5th c.
E01225Coptic Martyrdom of *Paese and his sister Thekla (martyrs of Alexandria, S00750) from Pousire in the Hermopolite nome and from Antinoopolis, both martyrs in Alexandria under the dux Armenios, but beheaded on their way south with Eutychianus, the dux of the Thebaid. The account preserved in a 9th c. manuscript includes: the martyrdom of *Viktor (son of Romanos, Egyptian martyr, S00749) at Alexandria; miracles performed by and on the saints through *Raphael (the Archangel, S00481); a visit of Paese to the heavenly Jerusalem; a boat trip on which Thekla meets *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033) and Elizabeth (mother of John the Baptist), and the Archangels *Gabriel (S00192) and Raphael; an account of the benefits that will be gained by adherents of Paese and Thekla's cult.
E01252Coptic funerary inscription, probably from Bawit, with a long invocation to a large number of saints including the Archangels *Michael (S00181) and *Gabriel (S00192),*Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), the Apostles (S00084), the martyrs *Viktor (son of Romanos, S00749), *Phoibammon (soldier and martyr of Assiut, S00080), *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), and *Menas (soldier and martyr of Abu Mena, S00073), and *Pamoun (S00775), as well as a long list of monastic figures that includes Apa *Apollo (founder of the monastery at Bawit, 4th century, S00160), Apa *Anoup, and Apa *Phib (S00774), of unknown date, presumably 6th/9th century and most likely from Bawit (Middle Egypt).
E01302Coptic funerary inscription from Bawit (Middle Egypt) with a long invocation to a large number of saints including the Archangels *Michael (S00181) and *Gabriel (S00192), *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), *Adam and Zoe/Eve (S00772), the *Apostles (S00084), the martyrs *Viktor (son of Romanos, Egyptian martyr, S00749), *Phoibamon (soldier and martyr of Assiut, S00080), *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), *Menas (soldier and martyr of Abu Mena, S00073), the *Martyrs of Thone (S00771), and a long list of monastic figures including *Apollo (founder of the monastery at Bawit, 4th century, S00160), Anoup, and Phib (S00774), presumably 6th/8th century.
E01715Coptic Encomion on *Viktor (son of Romanos, Egyptian martyr, S00749), preserving a vision of the saint on a cloud, as well as the end of his martyrdom and the building of his many shrines in which healing miracles were taking place when his name was invoked; written most likely in the 6th/7th century.
E01850Coptic Miracles of *Viktor (son of Romanos, Egyptian martyr, S00749), taking place at his martyr shrine (martyrion) of unknown Egyptian provenance. The miracles include healing a woman from swollen breasts and intercession and help against foreign attackers; written most likely in the 6th/7th century.
E01862Coptic Encomion on *Viktor (son of Romanos, Egyptian martyr, S00749), attributed to Theopempus of Antioch, relating stories from the saint's childhood to his martyrdom in Egypt, in the district of Antinoopolis (Middle Egypt), as well as two miracles connected to his cult in Antioch. Composition believed to date from 6th/7th century; the manuscript is dated to 14 February AD 861.
E01911Beginning of a Greek contract, from Arsinoe (Fayum), addressed to a 'presbyter and oikonomos of the holy Viktor' (probably Viktor, son of Romanos, Egyptian martyr, S00749), datable to the 6th/7th century.
E02123Greek list from the city of Oxyrhynchos (Middle Egypt), listing churches, most of them dedicated to saints, including *Viktor (presumably the Egyptian martyr, son of Romanos, S00749), *Neilos (presumably the ascetic of Sinai, S00405), *Zechariah (presumably the father of John the Baptist, S00597), *John (the Apostle and Evangelist, S00042), *Gabriel (the Archangel, S00192), *Kollouthos (physician and martyr of Antinoopolis, S00641), *John the Baptist (S00020), *Theodore (presumably the soldier and martyr of Amaseia and Euchaita, S00480), *Ioustos (presumably the soldier and martyr of Antinoopolis, S01172), and *Phoibammon (presumably the soldier and martyr of Assiut, S00080); datable to the 6th century.
E02224Greek fiscal codex from the village of Aphrodito (Upper Egypt), mentioning a topos and a church dedicated to *Viktor (presumably the son of Romanos, S00749), dated to the year 716–717 AD.
E02226Greek loan granted to a leather cutter by the church of *Viktor (son of Romanos, Egyptian martyr, S00749) in the city of Arsinoe (Fayum); dated 5 February 579.
E02285Greek amulet from Oxyrhynchos (Middle Egypt), invoking the help of *Mary (Μother of Christ, S00033), *John (the Εvangelist, S00042), *Serenos/Sirenos (probably a martyr of Oxyrhynchos, S00134), *Philoxenos (saint with cult at Oxyrhynchos, S00443), *Viktor (presumably the Egyptian martyr, son of Romanos, S00749), *Ioustos/Justus (presumably the soldier and martyr of Antinoopolis, S01172), and all saints (S01151), datable to the 5th century.
E02312Greek order to a wine-merchant, from Oxyrhynchos (Middle Egypt), to deliver wine to the 'widows of Saint *Viktor' (son of Romanos, Egyptian martyr, S00749), datable to the 6th century.
E02459Coptic sale of a house, from Jeme (Upper Egypt), a property previously donated to Abba *Viktor (probably the Egyptian martyr, son of Romanos, S00749) at Jeme, for the salvation of the donor's soul, dated 8 November 756.
E04027Coptic settlement of a dispute over inheritance, from Jeme (Upper Egypt), recording an oath sworn at a shrine (topos) dedicated to Abba *Viktor (presumably the Egyptian martyr, son of Romanos, S00749); dated 10 September 728.
E04034Coptic will of Daniel, from Jeme (Upper Egypt), bequeathing his house located on the road of Apa *Viktor (presumably the Egyptian martyr, son of Romanos, S00749) to his only son; dated 8 May 765.
E04040Coptic inscription on nummulitic limestone, presumably from Middle Egypt, with a long invocation to a large number of saints including *Mary (Mother of Christ, S00033), *Michael (the Archangel, S00181), *Adam (S00772), the *Patriarchs (S00138) and *Apostles (S00084), the martyrs Apa *Viktor (son of Romanos, Egyptian martyr, S00749), Apa *Phoibammon (soldier and martyr of Assiut, S00080), Apa *Paul (the first anchorite, S00089) and his brothers, as well as list of holy monastic figures, such as Apa *Apollo, Apa *Anoup, and Apa *Phib (monks and monastic founders, S00774), Apa *Patermoute (S01222), Apa *Proou, and all the saints. Datable to the 6th/9th century.
E04082Coptic funerary inscription of unknown Egyptian provenance, invoking a number of saints, such as Apa *Pshoi (S01245), Apa *Paul (S00089), Apa *Sourous (S01584), Apa *Petros (bishop and martyr of Alexandria, S00247), Apa *Biktor (presumably Viktor, the son of Romanos, Egyptian martyr, S00749), and Apa *Phobammon (soldier and martyr of Assiut, S00080), datable to the 6th–8th century.
E04142Coptic ostracon from Edfu/Apollonopolis (Upper Egypt) with a letter requesting to invoke Apa *Viktor (possibly Viktor, son of Romanos, Egyptian martyr, S00749) on the sender’s behalf; datable to the 7th century.
E04200Coptic document from Jeme (Upper Egypt) concerning the sale of a donkey, mentioning a man of an institution dedicated to Apa *Viktor (presumably Viktor, Egyptian martyr, son of Romanos, S00749) as the seller of the animal; datable to the 7th/8th century.
E04294Greek fiscal codex from Aphrodito (Upper Egypt), mentioning payments from various 'places' (topoi) dedicated to saints, such as a topos of *Enoch, *Mary, *Viktor, *Phoibammon, and *Papnouthios, as well a district or institution named after *Pinoution (S01613); dated 18 June 706.
E04310Greek list of payments from Aphrodito (Upper Egypt), mentioning receipts written on ostraka concerning districts or institutions named after *Viktor (probably the son of Romanos, S00749), *Philotheos (possibly the young martyr of Antioch, S00878) and *Enoch (probably the Old Testament patriarch, S00762), as well as a hamlet dedicated to Pinoution (saint with cult at Aphrodito, S01613); datable to the 8th century.
E04314Greek list of payments from Aphrodito (Upper Egypt), mentioning a district named after *Viktor (probably the son of Romanos, S00749) and a district dedicated to *Philotheos (possibly the young martyr of Antioch, S00878); datable to the 8th century.
E04326Coptic fiscal document from Aphrodito (Upper Egypt) mentioning three districts of the city named after saints, the district of *Enoch (probably the Old Testament patriarch, S00762), the district of *Viktor (probably the Egyptian martyr, son of Romanos, S00749), and the district of *Philotheos (possibly the young martyr of Antioch, S00878); datable to the 7th/8th century.
E04328Greek document from Syene /Aswan (Upper Egypt), concerning the sale of shares of houses, mentioning a shrine (topos) of the martyr Apa *Viktor (son of Romanos, Egyptian martyr, S00749) and a quarter of the town named after him, dated 6 March 594.
E04345Fragmentary Greek inscriptions/graffiti invoking *Sergios (soldier and martyr of Rusafa, S00023), *Bakchos (soldier and martyr of Barbalissos, S00292), the God of the two saints, *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), and saints whose names are lost (possibly *Viktor, martyr of Egypt, S00749; or Viktor, martyr of Maiuma near Gaza, S00292). Scattered over unrecorded locations around the North Church at Nessana/Auja Hafir in the Negev desert (Roman province of Palaestina III). Probably 6th-7th c.
E05111Coptic Martyrdom of *Viktor (son of Romanos, S00749), relates the saint’s conflict with his father Romanos at Antioch and his subsequent arrest and transportation to Alexandria, ordered and organised by Diocletian; written presumably during the 6th/7th century.
E05112Coptic Martyrdom of *Viktor (son of Romanos, S00749), the second Martyrdom, relating the saint’s imprisonment and trial at Alexandria under Armenios, his tortures and miraculous recoveries, a journey into heaven to be greeted by the saints, as well as his eventual transport to the south of Egypt for further trial south of Antinoopolis (Middle Egypt); written presumably in the 6th/7th century.
E05113Coptic Martyrdom of *Viktor (son of Romanos, S00749), the third Martyrdom, relates the saint’s transport to the south of Antinoopolis (Middle Egypt) for further trial, as well as his final banishment to an abandoned former military camp at Hierakonpolis (Upper Egypt) where he receives a visit from Christ who lays out the saint’s future cult; written presumably in the 6th/7th century.
E05114Coptic Martyrdom of *Viktor (son of Romanos, S00749), the fourth Martyrdom, relates the saint’s interaction with the dux Sebastianos, his miraculous strength during tortures, his contest with a magician who converts to Christianity, and his eventual beheading causing miracles; written presumably in the 6th/7th century.
E05926Coptic document from Deir el-Bahari (Upper Egypt) offering details concerning the contract of a newly ordained deacon at the shrine of Apa *Viktor (presumably Viktor, son of Romanos, martyr in Egypt, S00749); datable around the year 600.
E05991Coptic ostracon from Deir el-Bahari (Upper Egypt) with a list of saints or rather institutions dedicated to saints, such as *Mary (presumably Mary, mother of Christ, S00033), Apa *Michael (presumably the Archangel, S00181), and Apa Biktor (possibly Viktor, son of Romanos, S00749), possibly also one to *Mena (presumably Menas, soldier and martyr celebrated at Abu Mena); datable to the 7th century.
E06120Greek tax receipt from the Arsinoites (Fayum) mentioning a district named after *Viktor (presumably Viktor, son of Romanos, S00749); datable to the 7th century.
E06127Greek list of unknown Egyptian provenance recording donations in meat made for saints' feast days, among them *Stephen (the First Martyr, S00030), Apa *Viktor (presumably the son of Romanos), and Apa *Phoibammon (presumably the soldier and martyr, S00080); datable to the 5th century.
E06142Greek sale of parts of a house, from Syene (Upper Egypt), mentioning a district named after the oratory (eukterion) of *Viktor (presumably the son of Romanos, S00749); dated 30 May 585.
E06819Coptic funerary stela presumably from Sinnuris in the Fayum invoking a long list of saints, among them the martyrs *Viktor (son of Romanos, S00749), *Phoibammon (soldier and martyr of Assiut, S00080), *George (soldier and martyr, S00259), and *Menas (soldier and martyr of Abu Mena, S00073); datable to the 7th–9th century.
E07043Coptic fragment of an Encomion on *Viktor (presumably son of Romanos, S00749), attributed to John Chrysostom, from the White Monastery (Upper Egypt), relating the miracle of the death and resurrection of a boy killed after his parents refuse to donate him to the saint's shrine as they had promised, a miracle resulting in the self-donation of the entire family as servants at the shrine of the saint; written most likely during the 6th century.